Christopher James Constantine – B Eng (Civil) GradIEAustchris@designresolve.com

Archive for April, 2010
February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

Candela

Candela

Candela

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

 

sse

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

 

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9.0 – References
Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’,
Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.
Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’,
Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.
Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and
Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.
Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load
bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30,
pp. 1831-1841.
Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily
Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.
Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength
Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 12, pp. 263-270.
Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from
industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.
Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete
blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 29, pp. 616-625.
Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal
proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled
PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.
Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School,
Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J …

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented …

7.0 – Glossary
Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)
The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)

The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR)

The reaction between alkalis and free silica within a structure that produces an alkalisilica gel that can absorb water and expand, damaging the concrete.

Architectural Darwinism

The process by which natural selection results in the most suitable design features being present in a societies traditional housing solutions.

EPS aggregate

Expanded polystyrene foam aggregate.

Fly ash

The waste ash from coal fired powerplants.

Formwork

Temporary or permanent moulds used for casting concrete.

Informal Construction Sector

That part of the construction sector whose constituents are not professional construction workers or trained in construction work.

Pre-cast

Any concrete member that is cast in forms at a place other than its final position in use.

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate, commonly found in beverage bottles or scrap textile.

PP

Polypropylene

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

Seismicity

The factor of how seismic a region is.

Shallow Embedded Connections

Connections that are cast closer to the surface than to the centreline of a slab.

Short Fibre Reinforcement

Reinforcement of concrete between of approximate length.

Third World Country

Those countries which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure.

Tilt Up Construction

Concrete members are cast horizontally adjacent to their final position and tilted into place.

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located …

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – To view appendices, click on the links below.

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

Details Elevations pdfpart2 Calculations

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.
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Design Blog – February 2010

Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself.

My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Civil). DesignResolve.com is primarily a vehicle for me to receive comment my research into ‘Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art’. This report was completed in my final year of study and represents the culmination of five years work. It can be viewed online or downloaded under the heading ‘The Report’ above. This report is divided into two parts; the first provides a literature review of current texts pertaining to precast concrete technologies and the second provides a generic housing option based on this survey. These technologies centre around a reduction in require resources, low densities and application to the informal construction sector. Any comment is welcomed; the report is preliminary and intended to be flexible. I have no doubt that it will evolve considerably before it comes close to providing a viable solution to the current worldwide low cost housing problems.

The plan was to complete as sociologically sensitive solution that considered the principals of my two favourite disciplines Engineering and Architecture. It is my contention that the two disciplines should be complimentary and the traditional juxtaposition between ideals provided inefficient solutions with less design or artistic merit. This site, the thoughts and future work to be posted are intended to further this contention. To be a good engineer or architect requires consideration of each others principals to create resolved design. I will be continuing my studies in both architecture and urban design to produce work in accordance with this maxim. Good design should be available to people of any economic standing. It is my contention that it is the uniqueness, not quality of the design that should be compromised to provide economically viable solutions.

DesignResolve.com will provide regular blog entries, updates on ‘The Report’ and latest examples of items that are landmark resolved design solutions under IOTM. A catalogue of concept designs for urban and rural application is being compiled at the moment and will be available for purchase.

IOTM – February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.
sse

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction …

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction …

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction …

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction …

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction …

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction …

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located …

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located …

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – To view appendices, click on the links below.

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

pdfdetails.jpg pdfpart2 pdfpart2 pdfpart2

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – To view appendices, click on the links below.

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

pdfdetails.jpg pdfpart2 pdfpart2 pdfpart2

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – To view appendices, click on the links below.

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

pdfdetails.jpg pdfpart2 pdfpart2 pdfpart2

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – (Download below)

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

pdfdetails.jpg pdfpart2 pdfpart2 pdfpart2


The Report
This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation.
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