Christopher James Constantine – B Eng (Civil) GradIEAustchris@designresolve.com

July 2010

[Vernacular Architecture]

Vernacular architecture does not go through fashion cycles. It is nearly immutable, indeed, unimprovable, since it serves its purpose to perfection.

-   Bernard Rudofsky

Consider and respond…

July 2010

[Vernacular Architecture]

Vernacular architecture does not go through fashion cycles. It is nearly immutable, indeed, unimprovable, since it serves its purpose to perfection.

-   Bernard Rudofsky

June 2010

emotions cannot be passed on or conveyed. art/design is purely the catalyst for new emotion.

June 2010

emotions cannot be

May 2010

IOTM for May 2010 is a small but exciting update. Two simple photos below from Chile are the most exciting thing to come across my desk this much this month. Showing the local building techniques, with sticks for increasing flexural strength of concrete and gabion walls for urban building applications.

DSC02838

The above was exciting enough, using local materials to create hybrid materials with different structural properties. But more important and more inspiring is the below.

Inspiration

Inspiration

Gabion walls for urban application! I’m more than a little upset I didn’t think of this before… I’m going to be suggesting this for a project in the near future so stay tuned for updates. Inspiration like this doesn’t come along every day and I’m all about using technologies and materials in new and interesting ways. So if you see anything a little unusual or have photos like this from other parts of the globe, I’d love you to send them in! Simple is almost always best…

<Edit, I found this example out there on the web>

Titus Bernhard Architekten

Titus Bernhard Architekten

2008-02-08_094022-TreeHugger-gabion-night-shot

Titus Bernhard Architekten

May 2010

IOTM for May 2010 is a small but exciting update. Two simple photos below from Chile are the most exciting thing to come across my desk this much this month. Showing the local building techniques, with sticks for increasing flexural strength of concrete and gabion walls for urban building applications.

DSC02838

The above was exciting enough, using local materials to create hybrid materials with different structural properties. But more important and more inspiring is the below.

Inspiration

Inspiration

Gabion walls for urban application! I’m more than a little upset I didn’t think of this before… I’m going to be suggesting this for a project in the near future so stay tuned for updates. Inspiration like this doesn’t come along every day and I’m all about using technologies and materials in new and interesting ways. So if you see anything a little unusual or have photos like this from other parts of the globe, I’d love you to send them in! Simple is almost always best…

<Edit, I found this example out there on the web>

Titus Bernhard Architekten

Titus Bernhard Architekten

IOTM for May 2010 is a small but exciting update. Two simple photos below from Chile are the most exciting thing to come across my desk this much this month. Showing the local building techniques, with sticks for increasing flexural strength of concrete and gabion walls for urban building applications.

DSC02838

The above was exciting enough, using local materials to create hybrid materials with different structural properties. But more important and more inspiring is the below.

Inspiration

Inspiration

Gabion walls for urban application! I’m more than a little upset I didn’t think of this before… I’m going to be suggesting this for a project in the near future so stay tuned for updates. Inspiration like this doesn’t come along every day and I’m all about using technologies and materials in new and interesting ways. So if you see anything a little unusual or have photos like this from other parts of the globe, I’d love you to send them in! Simple is almost always best…

IOTM for May 2010 is a small but exciting update. Two simple photos below from Chile are the most exciting thing to come across my desk this much this month. Showing the local building techniques, with sticks for increasing flexural strength of concrete and gabion walls for urban building applications.

DSC02838

The above was exciting enough, using local materials to create hybrid materials with different structural properties. But more important and more inspiring is the below.

Inspiration

Inspiration

Gabion walls for urban application! I’m more than a little upset I didn’t think of this before… I’m going to be suggesting this for a project in the near future so stay tuned for updates. Inspiration like this doesn’t come along every day and I’m all about using technologies and materials in new and interesting ways. So if you see anything a little unusual or have photos like this from other parts of the globe, I’d love you to send them in!

DSC02839

Inspiration

May 2010

DSC02838

DSC02839

DSC02839

DSC02838

DSC02838

DSC02837

DSC02837

May 2010

Architectural Darwinism – The Evolution and Importance of Traditional Structure

Charles Darwin - nature to design...

Charles Darwin - nature to design...

As promised we’ll be discussing this concept in May’s design blog entry. I apologize for the late update to the site this month but I can guarantee it’s a topic worth waiting for.

This topic was a something I first came across when reading a paper by Uche Ikejiofor on Nigerian housing (If past traditions were building blocks, 1999). Architectural Darwinism describes the process whereby the most effective design characteristics of buildings within a certain area are retained an combined over time to create the most appropriate design solution in context.

Concepts like ‘evolution’ and ‘natural selection’ are equally applicable to built structures as to organic organisms. The most efficient, functional and practical solutions  naturally outlast their competitors. As a result of this process we see prevailing architectural trends  between similar geographical locations, prescribed uses and social contexts. The best architecture, as a result, most often takes its inspiration from past traditions in housing.

So before I leave you to think about this, I have one more suggestion for you as designers. This can be applied in everything you do! You can do a lot worse than looking to the great designs of the past before designing anything new, after all, they were great for a reason.

darwin

Charles Darwin - nature to design...

May 2010

Architectural Darwinism – The Evolution and Importance of Traditional Structure

As promised we’ll be discussing this concept in May’s design blog entry. I apologize for the late update to the site this month but I can guarantee it’s a topic worth waiting for.

This topic was a something I first came across when reading a paper by Uche Ikejiofor on Nigerian housing (If past traditions were building blocks, 1999). Architectural Darwinism describes the process whereby the most effective design characteristics of buildings within a certain area are retained an combined over time to create the most appropriate design solution in context.

Concepts like ‘evolution’ and ‘natural selection’ are equally applicable to built structures as to organic organisms. The most efficient, functional and practical solutions  naturally outlast their competitors. As a result of this process we see prevailing architectural trends  between similar geographical locations, prescribed uses and social contexts. The best architecture, as a result, most often takes its inspiration from past traditions in housing.

So before I leave you to think about this, I have one more suggestion for you as designers. This can be applied in everything you do! You can do a lot worse than looking to the great designs of the past before designing anything new, after all, they were great for a reason.

April 2010

The first lecture I was given, upon beginning high school, was by Dr Ross Millikan, headmaster of Carey Baptist Grammar School in Melbourne. The topic of this speech was “The Burden of Privilege”. Anyone who knows Dr Millikan may disagree but I remember him as a quiet man with an unquestionable authority about him, the kind of man whose words demand you’re listening.  These words are not shared often because they a considered, even valuable. This was certainly the case when I first heard him speak.

The burden of privilege pertains to the social responsibilities of those with resources at their disposal. These resources may not necessarily be monetary but may be intellectual or sociological. It is the responsibility of any individual to attempt to improve the standing of their fellow man.

“With opportunity comes great responsibility.” Some 12 years on I still remember this quote and it resonates with me almost every day. As a professional who has had the opportunity to undertake further study, to earn a good wage and to make choices based on want instead of need, I have great responsibility. The small contributions I currently make and even those grand plans I have for future charitable endeavours will be inconsequential without others following suit.  All those fortunate to learn, to have choices and live in countries outside of the third world have a responsibility to those less privileged.

So once you can accept these responsibilities, what are you to do? Well the next hurdle comes to practicality. As I discussed above, one individual’s efforts may seem insignificant but the key concept here is making a practical contribution. Practical in the sense that it can be applied effectively in context whether that is on a small or large scale. The main problem associated with being practical centres on the moral considerations derived from our privileged existence.

We expect certain living, health and educational standards. These standards may not be practical goals in some third and even second world situations. Basic housing in first world countries contains running water, sewerage and sizeable living spaced. Morally we feel obliged to provide similar standards of living in a foreign aid context. This is neither realistic nor practical. In some instances four walls and a floor is much better than nothing. We must push these moral considerations aside and view the big picture… We must be practical.

(Next Month: Architectural Darwinism – The Evolution and Importance of Traditional Structure)

April 2010

The first lecture I was given, upon beginning high school, was by Dr Ross Millikan, headmaster of Carey Grammar School in Melbourne. The topic of this speech was “The Burden of Privilege”. Anyone who knows Dr Millikan may disagree but I remember him as a quiet man with an unquestionable authority about him, the kind of man whose words demand your listening.  There words are not share often because they a considered, even valuable. This was certainly the case when I first heard him speak.

The burden of privilege pertains to the social responsibilities of those with resources at their disposal. These resources may not necessarily be monetary but intellectual or social. It is the responsibility of any individual to attempt to improve the standing their fellow man.

“With opportunity comes great responsibility.” Some 12 years on I still remember this quote and it resonates with me almost every day. As a professional who has had the opportunity to undertake further study, to earn a good wage and to make choices based on want instead of need, I have great responsibility. The small contributions I currently make and even those grand plans I have for future charitable endeavors will be inconsequential without others following suit.  All those fortunate to learn, to have choices and live in countries outside of the third world have a responsibility to those less privileged.

So once you can accept these responsibilities, what are you to do? Well the next hurdle comes to practicality. As I discussed above, one individual’s efforts may seem insignificant but the key concept here is making a practical contribution. Practical in the sense that it can be applied effectively in context whether that be on a small or large scale. Moral considerations in providing aid.

Architectural Darwinism

April 2010
April 2010

The first lecture I was given, upon beginning high school, was by Dr Ross Millikan, headmaster of Carey Baptist Grammar School in Melbourne. The topic of this speech was “The Burden of Privilege”. Anyone who knows Dr Millikan may disagree but I remember him as a quiet man with an unquestionable authority about him, the kind of man whose words demand you’re listening.  These words are not shared often because they a considered, even valuable. This was certainly the case when I first heard him speak.

The burden of privilege pertains to the social responsibilities of those with resources at their disposal. These resources may not necessarily be monetary but may be intellectual or sociological. It is the responsibility of any individual to attempt to improve the standing of their fellow man.

“With opportunity comes great responsibility.” Some 12 years on I still remember this quote and it resonates with me almost every day. As a professional who has had the opportunity to undertake further study, to earn a good wage and to make choices based on want instead of need, I have great responsibility. The small contributions I currently make and even those grand plans I have for future charitable endeavours will be inconsequential without others following suit.  All those fortunate to learn, to have choices and live in countries outside of the third world have a responsibility to those less privileged.

So once you can accept these responsibilities, what are you to do? Well the next hurdle comes to practicality. As I discussed above, one individual’s efforts may seem insignificant but the key concept here is making a practical contribution. Practical in the sense that it can be applied effectively in context whether that is on a small or large scale. The main problem associated with being practical centres on the moral considerations derived from our privileged existence.

We expect certain living, health and educational standards. These standards may not be practical goals in some third and even second world situations. Basic housing in first world countries contains running water, sewerage and sizeable living spaced. Morally we feel obliged to provide similar standards of living in a foreign aid context. This is neither realistic nor practical. In some instances four walls and a floor is much better than nothing. We must push these moral considerations aside and view the big picture… We must be practical.

(Next Month: Architectural Darwinism – The Evolution and Importance of Traditional Structure)

April 2010

So I know this is going to create a few waves but before I tell you what the IOTM for April is I want to preface it with a definition. ‘Art is anything that draws an emotional response, whether positive or negative, from an audience’. (Basically what I’m getting at here is that if you strongly disagree with what I’m saying with regard to the featured design, you’re actually agreeing and I WIN).

2007-volvo-C30_JUMP

The Volvo C30 is a new take on the traditional 3-door hatch. Why do I like it so much? In short, it’s the first true aesthetic innovation in car exterior design for some time.  Love it or hate it (and I definitely love it) you have to admit that it creates discussion. The rear window alignement is completely different to anything I’ve seen before and takes the traditional hatch from boring to bootylicious. I have found that this rear end polarizes opinions even amongst my circle of friends and isn’t this what good design should do?

Good design should be daring enough to ruffle a few feathers. As discussed in my March Design Blog, one of the biggest problems with the Engineering profession today is that it doesn’t take risks or try new things. Volvo have broken the mould with this one and love it or hate it, you have to congratulate them.

April 2010

So I know this is going to create a few waves but before I tell you what the IOTM for April is I want to preface it with a definition. ‘Art is anything that draws an emotional response, whether positive or negative, from an audience’. (Basically what I’m getting at here is that if you strongly disagree with what I’m saying with regard to the featured design, you’re actually agreeing and I WIN).

2007-volvo-C30_JUMP

The Volvo C30 is a new take on the traditional 3-door hatch. Why do I like it so much? In short, it’s the first true aesthetic innovation in car exterior design for some time.  Love it or hate it (and I definitely love it) you have to admit that it creates discussion. The rear window alignement is completely different to anything I’ve seen before and takes the traditional hatch from boring to bootylicious. I have found that this rear end polarizes opinions even amongst my circle of friends and isn’t this what good design should do?

Good design should be daring enough to ruffle a few feathers. As discussed in my March Design Blog, one of the biggest problems with the Engineering profession today is that it doesn’t take risks or try new things. Volvo have broken the mould with this one and love it or hate it, you have to congratulate them.

2007-volvo-C30_JUMP

2007-volvo-C30_JUMP

2007 Volvo C30 – booty

Toolbox

Links

Professional Associations:
www.ewb.org.au – Engineers without Borders Australia
www.architectswithoutfrontiers.com.au – Architects without Frontiers Australia
www.engineersaustralia.org.au – Engineers Australia
www.apesma.asn.au – Association of Professional Engineers, Scientists and Managers, Australia
www.eng.monash.edu.au – Monash Engineering Faculty
www.architecture.com.au – Australian Institute of Architecture

Design Favourites:
www.constantinework.com – DPJ Constantine’s online portfolio
www.cardplace.co.uk – UK card manufacturer
www.mattblatt.com.au – Furniture
www.newedge-thebrewery.com – Design Firm

Item of the Month Archive

March 2010
IOTM March

IOTM March

What’s on the plate for IOTM in March? Well… Somewhat predictably I’m serving up the series of wash basins and sinks that form Nilo Gioacchini’s Grandangolo range eluded to in Feb’s post. The collection itself is, in contrast to the distinct lack of originality shown by myself,  provides a refreshing approach to product design that offers optimisation of space through control of line and volume.

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini studied the Institute of Artistic Industries (ISIA) in Florence, Italy. A native of Italy he has over 35 years professional experience and achieved international recognition for his work. I assume that the tagline of this particular product lost something in translation as the English reads “A sign as synthesis of geometrical continuity and expression of the creative gesture“. Apart from suggesting that whoever translated this should be given a creative gesture of another kind, I would also suggest that the product is deserving of a much more eloquent branding slogan (sorry for being mean but I promise I won’t get started on the photo of Nilo displayed in the biography section of his website, shown above).  I would describe the range as an angular modern interpretation of traditional ceramics that achieves elegance and beauty through economy of form (inhale deeply)…

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Instead of saying “buy it” or “it’s a must have item” all I will say is this; everyday items can be just as inspiring and uplifting as any of those in galleries. They have the potential to be more influential and will undoubtedly reach more people, in there homes and places of work. The designers of such pieces bare the responsibility of reaching the masses and are truly artists of the people. If every designer could consider Vitruvius’ maxium from De architectura, that design should exhibit three qualities “firmitas, utilitas, venustas” — that is, it must be durable, useful, and beautiful, we would be well on the way to producing design icon such as Nilo’s.

March 2010
IOTM March

IOTM March

What’s on the plate for IOTM in March? Well… Somewhat predictably I’m serving up the series of wash basins and sinks that form Nilo Gioacchini’s Grandangolo range eluded to in Feb’s post. The collection itself is, in contrast to the distinct lack of originality shown by myself,  provides a refreshing approach to product design that offers optimisation of space through control of line and volume.

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini studied the Institute of Artistic Industries (ISIA) in Florence, Italy. A native of Italy he has over 35 years professional experience and achieved international recognition for his work. I assume that the tagline of this particular product lost something in translation as the English reads “A sign as synthesis of geometrical continuity and expression of the creative gesture“. Apart from suggesting that whoever translated this should be given a creative gesture of another kind, I would also suggest that the product is deserving of a much more eloquent branding slogan (sorry for being mean but I promise I won’t get started on the photo of Nilo displayed in the biography section of his website, shown above).  I would describe the range as an angular modern interpretation of traditional ceramics that achieves elegance and beauty through economy of form (inhale deeply)…

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Instead of saying “buy it” or “it’s a must have item” all I will say is this; everyday items can be just as inspiring and uplifting as any of those in galleries. They have the potential to be more influential and will undoubtedly reach more people, in there homes and places of work. The designers of such pieces bare the responsibility of reaching the masses and are truly artists of the people. If every designer could consider Vitruvius’ maxium from De architectura, that design should exhibit three qualities “firmitas, utilitas, venustas” — that is, it must be durable, useful, and beautiful, we would be well on the way to producing design icon such as Nilo’s.

IOTM March

IOTM March

What’s on the plate for IOTM in March? Well… Somewhat predictably I’m serving up the series of wash basins and sinks that form Nilo Gioacchini’s Grandangolo range eluded to in Feb’s post. The collection itself is, in contrast to the distinct lack of originality shown by myself,  provides a refreshing approach to product design that offers optimisation of space through control of line and volume.

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini studied the Institute of Artistic Industries (ISIA) in Florence, Italy. A native of Italy he has over 35 years professional experience and achieved international recognition for his work. I assume that the tagline of this particular product lost something in translation as the English reads “A sign as synthesis of geometrical continuity and expression of the creative gesture“. Apart from suggesting that whoever translated this should be given a creative gesture of another kind, I would also suggest that the product is deserving of a much more eloquent branding slogan (sorry for being mean but I promise I won’t get started on the photo of Nilo displayed in the biography section of his website, shown above).  I would describe the range as an angular modern interpretation of traditional ceramics that achieves elegance and beauty through economy of form (inhale deeply)…

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Instead of saying “buy it” or “it’s a must have item” all I will say is this; everyday items can be just as inspiring and uplifting as any of those in galleries. They have the potential to be more influential and will undoubtedly reach more people, in there homes and places of work. The designers of such pieces bare the responsibility of reaching the masses and are truly artists of the people. If every designer could consider Vitruvius’ maxium from De architectura, that design should exhibit three qualities “firmitas, utilitas, venustas” — that is, it must be durable, useful, and beautiful, the

IOTM March

IOTM March

What’s on the plate for IOTM in March? Well… Somewhat predictably I’m serving up the series of wash basins and sinks that form Nilo Gioacchini’s Grandangolo range eluded to in Feb’s post. The collection itself is, in contrast to the distinct lack of originality shown by myself,  provides a refreshing approach to product design that offers optimisation of space through control of line and volume.

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

Nilo Gioacchini studied the Institute of Artistic Industries (ISIA) in Florence, Italy. A native of Italy he has over 35 years professional experience and achieved international recognition for his work. I assume that the tagline of this particular product lost something in translation as the English reads “A sign as synthesis of geometrical continuity and expression of the creative gesture“. Apart from suggesting that whoever translated this should be given a creative gesture of another kind, I would also suggest that the product is deserving of a much more eloquent branding slogan (sorry for being mean but I promise I won’t get started on the photo of Nilo displayed in the biography section of his website, shown above).  I would describe the range as an angular modern interpretation of traditional ceramics that achieves elegance and beauty through economy of form (inhale deeply)…

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Instead of saying “buy it” or “it’s a must have item” all I will say is this; everyday items can be just as inspiring and uplifting as any of those in galleries. They have the potential to be more influential and will undoubtedly reach more people, in there homes and places of work. The designers of such pieces bare the responsibility of reaching the masses and are truly artists of the people. If every designer could consider Vitruvius’ maxium from De architectura, that design should exhibit three qualities “firmitas, utilitas, venustas” — that is, it must be durable, useful, and beautiful.

2367050167_840e09686b

IOTM March

news_350_im1

Grandangolo Range (distributed by Hatria)

Foto 027

Nilo Gioacchini... and his friend

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

The name's Arup, Ove Arup

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

The name's Arup, Ove Arup

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

The name's Arup, Ove Arup

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

The name's Arup, Ove Arup

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

The name's Arup, Ove Arup

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and have left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

March

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March

March

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

big--ove-look-right_opt

James Bond had nothing on Arup, da Vinci and Eiffel

leonardo_davinci_03_10alexandre_gustave_eiffel

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

big--ove-look-right_opt

James Bond had nothing on Arup, da Vinci and Eiffel

leonardo_davinci_03_10alexandre_gustave_eiffel

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

big--ove-look-right_opt

James Bond had nothing on Arup, da Vinci and Eiffel

leonardo_davinci_03_10alexandre_gustave_eiffel

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

leonardo_davinci_03_10

leonardo_davinci_03_10

big–ove-look-right_opt

big--ove-look-right_opt

alexandre_gustave_eiffel

alexandre_gustave_eiffel

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually.

March 2010

So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for this month? ‘the decline in glamour associated with the engineering profession in it’s current state and its direct link to the loss of creativity associated with both education and industrial practices‘.

Once upon a time, little boys and girls dreamed of being not only doctors, firemen or astronauts but also Engineers (not strectching it too far here?). In the past there were inspiring figures such as Sir Ove Arup, Alexandre Gustave Effiel and Leonardo da Vinci who married design with function and efficiency with beauty. These practitioners were both innovative and creative with an understanding both the mechanics of solids but also the intangibles of philosophy. Engineers were the decision makers, the designers and the catalysts for free thought. Now, bureaucracy has constrained them and creativity has become the field of those with degrees based solely in design. Codes and standards make the majority of design decisions for the Engineer today and left those still faced with new problems, deferring to those with less technical expertise.

I became an Engineer based on the rationale that if I became and architect or industrial designer I would always have to defer to an engineer for final approval. I wanted freedom to express my ideas in a manner that would not be constrained by others and produce truly uncompromised design solutions. In making this statement I have to highlight that I have not, do not and will never suggest that design professionals are superfluous or even over valued. They are an essential part of the creative process but, as is the case with sound managerial practice, decisions cannot be made without technical expertise and this is what makes the engineer irreplaceable.

The current generation of Engineers and their educators must be daring. This generation need to be assertive and strong in their work, embracing creativity and responsibility. Only when this begins to happen again will the lustre of the profession be restored. It is the Engineer’s responsibility to take control of the project and to make it work, not just in a functional sense but also contextually. Good Engineers will see that strength is derived from cur

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

Candela

Candela

Candela

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

 

sse

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

 

sse

9.0 – References
Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’,
Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.
Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’,
Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.
Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and
Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.
Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load
bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30,
pp. 1831-1841.
Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily
Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.
Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength
Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 12, pp. 263-270.
Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from
industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.
Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete
blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 29, pp. 616-625.
Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal
proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled
PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.
Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School,
Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, ‘Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models’, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt-up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

7.0 – Glossary
Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)
The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)

The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR)

The reaction between alkalis and free silica within a structure that produces an alkalisilica gel that can absorb water and expand, damaging the concrete.

Architectural Darwinism

The process by which natural selection results in the most suitable design features being present in a societies traditional housing solutions.

EPS aggregate

Expanded polystyrene foam aggregate.

Fly ash

The waste ash from coal fired powerplants.

Formwork

Temporary or permanent moulds used for casting concrete.

Informal Construction Sector

That part of the construction sector whose constituents are not professional construction workers or trained in construction work.

Pre-cast

Any concrete member that is cast in forms at a place other than its final position in use.

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate, commonly found in beverage bottles or scrap textile.

PP

Polypropylene

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

Seismicity

The factor of how seismic a region is.

Shallow Embedded Connections

Connections that are cast closer to the surface than to the centreline of a slab.

Short Fibre Reinforcement

Reinforcement of concrete between of approximate length.

Third World Country

Those countries which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure.

Tilt Up Construction

Concrete members are cast horizontally adjacent to their final position and tilted into place.

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’ capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide an immediate response.

Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.

Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing. Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used at decreased volumes.

It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Next page: 1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – To view appendices, click on the links below.

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

Details Elevations pdfpart2 Calculations

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.
sse

Design Blog – February 2010

Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself.

My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Civil). DesignResolve.com is primarily a vehicle for me to receive comment my research into ‘Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art’. This report was completed in my final year of study and represents the culmination of five years work. It can be viewed online or downloaded under the heading ‘The Report’ above. This report is divided into two parts; the first provides a literature review of current texts pertaining to precast concrete technologies and the second provides a generic housing option based on this survey. These technologies centre around a reduction in require resources, low densities and application to the informal construction sector. Any comment is welcomed; the report is preliminary and intended to be flexible. I have no doubt that it will evolve considerably before it comes close to providing a viable solution to the current worldwide low cost housing problems.

The plan was to complete as sociologically sensitive solution that considered the principals of my two favourite disciplines Engineering and Architecture. It is my contention that the two disciplines should be complimentary and the traditional juxtaposition between ideals provided inefficient solutions with less design or artistic merit. This site, the thoughts and future work to be posted are intended to further this contention. To be a good engineer or architect requires consideration of each others principals to create resolved design. I will be continuing my studies in both architecture and urban design to produce work in accordance with this maxim. Good design should be available to people of any economic standing. It is my contention that it is the uniqueness, not quality of the design that should be compromised to provide economically viable solutions.

DesignResolve.com will provide regular blog entries, updates on ‘The Report’ and latest examples of items that are landmark resolved design solutions under IOTM. A catalogue of concept designs for urban and rural application is being compiled at the moment and will be available for purchase.

IOTM – February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.
sse

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

Next Page »
1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

« Previous Page
Next Page »
1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’ capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide an immediate response.

Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.

Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing. Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used at decreased volumes.

It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Next page: 1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

Previous page: Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’ capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide an immediate response.

Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.

Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing. Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used at decreased volumes.

It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

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The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

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The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
February 2010

Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself.

My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Civil). DesignResolve.com is primarily a vehicle for me to receive comment my research into ‘Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art’. This report was completed in my final year of study and represents the culmination of five years work. It can be viewed online or downloaded under the heading ‘The Report’ above. This report is divided into two parts; the first provides a literature review of current texts pertaining to precast concrete technologies and the second provides a generic housing option based on this survey. These technologies centre around a reduction in require resources, low densities and application to the informal construction sector. Any comment is welcomed; the report is preliminary and intended to be flexible. I have no doubt that it will evolve considerably before it comes close to providing a viable solution to the current worldwide low cost housing problems.

The plan was to complete as sociologically sensitive solution that considered the principals of my two favourite disciplines Engineering and Architecture. It is my contention that the two disciplines should be complimentary and the traditional juxtaposition between ideals provided inefficient solutions with less design or artistic merit. This site, the thoughts and future work to be posted are intended to further this contention. To be a good engineer or architect requires consideration of each others principals to create resolved design. I will be continuing my studies in both architecture and urban design to produce work in accordance with this maxim. Good design should be available to people of any economic standing. It is my contention that it is the uniqueness, not quality of the design that should be compromised to provide economically viable solutions.

DesignResolve.com will provide regular blog entries, updates on ‘The Report’ and latest examples of items that are landmark resolved design solutions under IOTM. A catalogue of concept designs for urban and rural application is being compiled at the moment and will be available for purchase.

sig3

sig3

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.
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sse

sse

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioacchini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

Candela

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

February 2010

The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioaccini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers Association of New York and The Museum of Modern Art. These lectures were held in honour of Felix Candela and explore the merit of engineering as architecture and art.

The lectures were given by some of Candela’s most eminent and creative colleagues and successors. Contributors include Christian Menn, known for his iconic long-span concrete bridges; Leslie E. Robertson, whose projects include the original World Trade Center in New York and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong; and Jörg Schlaich, described by Frank Gehry as the world’s best living structural engineer.

February 2010

Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself.

My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Civil). DesignResolve.com is primarily a vehicle for me to receive comment my research into ‘Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art’. This report was completed in my final year of study and represents the culmination of five years work. It can be viewed online or downloaded under the heading ‘The Report’ above. This report is divided into two parts; the first provides a literature review of current texts pertaining to precast concrete technologies and the second provides a generic housing option based on this survey. These technologies centre around a reduction in require resources, low densities and application to the informal construction sector. Any comment is welcomed; the report is preliminary and intended to be flexible. I have no doubt that it will evolve considerably before it comes close to providing a viable solution to the current worldwide low cost housing problems.

The plan was to complete as sociologically sensitive solution that considered the principals of my two favourite disciplines Engineering and Architecture. It is my contention that the two disciplines should be complimentary and the traditional juxtaposition between ideals provided inefficient solutions with less design or artistic merit. This site, the thoughts and future work to be posted are intended to further this contention. To be a good engineer or architect requires consideration of each others principals to create resolved design. I will be continuing my studies in both architecture and urban design to produce work in accordance with this maxim. Good design should be available to people of any economic standing. It is my contention that it is the uniqueness, not quality of the design that should be compromised to provide economically viable solutions.

DesignResolve.com will provide regular blog entries, updates on ‘The Report’ and latest examples of items that are landmark resolved design solutions under IOTM. A catalogue of concept designs for urban and rural application is being compiled at the moment and will be available for purchase.

February 2010

Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself.

My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Civil). DesignResolve.com is primarily a vehicle for me to receive comment my research into ‘Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art’. This report was completed in my final year of study and represents the culmination of five years work. It can be viewed online or downloaded under the heading ‘The Report’ above. This report is divided into two parts; the first provides a literature review of current texts pertaining to precast concrete technologies and the second provides a generic housing option based on this survey. These technologies centre around a reduction in require resources, low densities and application to the informal construction sector. Any comment is welcomed; the report is preliminary and intended to be flexible. I have no doubt that it will evolve considerably before it comes close to providing a viable solution to the current worldwide low cost housing problems.

The plan was to complete as sociologically sensitive solution that considered the principals of my two favourite disciplines Engineering and Architecture. It is my contention that the two disciplines should be complimentary and the traditional juxtaposition between ideals provided inefficient solutions with less design or artistic merit. This site, the thoughts and future work to be posted are intended to further this contention. To be a good engineer or architect requires consideration of each others principals to create resolved design. I will be continuing my studies in both architecture and urban design to produce work in accordance with this maxim. Good design should be available to people of any economic standing. It is my contention that it is the uniqueness, not quality of the design that should be compromised to provide economically viable solutions.

DesignResolve.com will provide regular blog entries, updates on ‘The Report’ and latest examples of items that are landmark resolved design solutions under IOTM. A catalogue of concept designs for urban and rural application is being compiled at the moment and will be available for purchase.

February 2010

Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself.

My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering (Civil). DesignResolve.com is primarily a vehicle for me to receive comment my research into ‘Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art’. This report was completed in my final year of study and represents the culmination of five years work. It can be viewed online or downloaded under the heading ‘The Report’ above. This report is divided into two parts; the first provides a literature review of current texts pertaining to precast concrete technologies and the second provides a generic housing option based on this survey. These technologies centre around a reduction in require resources, low densities and application to the informal construction sector. Any comment is welcomed; the report is preliminary and intended to be flexible. I have no doubt that it will evolve considerably before it comes close to providing a viable solution to the current worldwide low cost housing problems.

The plan was to complete as sociologically sensitive solution that considered the principals of my two favourite disciplines Engineering and Architecture. It is my contention that the two disciplines should be complimentary and the traditional juxtaposition between ideals provided inefficient solutions with less design or artistic merit. This site, the thoughts and future work to be posted are intended to further this contention. To be a good engineer or architect requires consideration of each others principals to create resolved design. I will be continuing my studies in both architecture and urban design to produce work in accordance with this maxim. Good design should be available to people of any economic standing. It is my contention that it is the uniqueness, not quality of the design that should be compromised to provide economically viable solutions.

DesignResolve.com will provide regular blog entries, updates on ‘The Report’ and latest examples of items that are landmark resolved design solutions under IOTM. A catalogue of concept designs for urban and rural application is being compiled at the moment and will be available for purchase.

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Links

Professional Associations:
www.ewb.org.au – Engineers without Borders Australia
www.architectswithoutfrontiers.com.au – Architects without Frontiers Australia
www.engineersaustralia.org.au – Engineers Australia
www.apesma.asn.au – Association of Professional Engineers, Scientists and Managers, Australia
www.eng.monash.edu.au – Monash Engineering Faculty
www.architecture.com.au – Australian Institute of Architecture

Design Favourites:
www.constantinework.com – DPJ Constantine’s online portfolio
www.cardplace.co.uk – UK card manufacturer
www.mattblatt.com.au – Furniture

Item of the Month Archive

Toolbox

Links

Professional Associations:
www.ewb.org.au – Engineers without Borders Australia
www.architectswithoutfrontiers.com.au – Architects without Frontiers Australia
www.engineersaustralia.org.au – Engineers Australia
www.apesma.asn.au – Association of Professional Engineers, Scientists and Managers, Australia
www.eng.monash.edu.au – Monash Engineering Faculty
www.architecture.com.au – Australian Institute of Architecture

Design Favourites:
www.constantinework.com – DPJ Constantine’s online portfolio
www.cardplace.co.uk – UK card manufacturer
http://www.mattblatt.com.au/ – Furniture

Item of the Month Archive

Toolbox

Links

Professional Associations:
www.ewb.org.au – Engineers without Borders Australia
www.architectswithoutfrontiers.com.au – Architects without Frontiers Australia
www.engineersaustralia.org.au – Engineers Australia
www.apesma.asn.au – Association of Professional Engineers, Scientists and Managers, Australia
www.eng.monash.edu.au – Monash Engineering Faculty
www.architecture.com.au – Australian Institute of Architecture

Design Favourites:
www.constantinework.com – DPJ Constantine’s online portfolio
www.cardplace.co.uk – UK card manufacturer
http://www.mattblatt.com.au/ – Furniture

Item of the Month Archive

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online
Part 1
Part 2

Appendices

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report

Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download

pdfpart1pdfpart2

The Report

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

Download

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The Report

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

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pdfpart2

The Report

Part 1

Part 2

Appendices

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The Report

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Item of the Month Archive

Item of the Month
  • May 2010 May 30, 2010IOTM for May 2010 is a small but exciting update. Two simple photos below from Chile are the most exciting thing to come across my desk this much this month. Showing the local building techniques, with sticks for increasing flexural strength of concrete and gabion walls for urban building applications. The above was exciting enough, using ...
  • April 2010 April 8, 2010So I know this is going to create a few waves but before I tell you what the IOTM for April is I want to preface it with a definition. ‘Art is anything that draws an emotional response, whether positive or negative, from an audience’. (Basically what I’m getting at here is that if you ...
  • March 2010 March 18, 2010What’s on the plate for IOTM in March? Well… Somewhat predictably I’m serving up the series of wash basins and sinks that form Nilo Gioacchini’s Grandangolo range eluded to in Feb’s post. The collection itself is, in contrast to the distinct lack of originality shown by myself,  provides a refreshing approach to product design that ...
  • February 2010 January 30, 2010The first IOTM! How exciting… I had earmarked a series of washbasins and sinks by Nilo Gioacchini for this Item of the Month (hereafter referred to as IOTM) but something very exciting came across my desk that seems more fitting for the site’s launch. It is a collation of lectures hosted by the Structural Engineers ...
Item of the Month
Design Blog
  • July 2010 July 26, 2010 Vernacular architecture does not go through fashion cycles. It is nearly immutable, indeed, unimprovable, since it serves its purpose to perfection. -   Bernard Rudofsky Consider and respond…
  • May 2010 May 30, 2010Architectural Darwinism – The Evolution and Importance of Traditional Structure As promised we’ll be discussing this concept in May’s design blog entry. I apologize for the late update to the site this month but I can guarantee it’s a topic worth waiting for. This topic was a something I first came across when reading a paper ...
  • April 2010 April 8, 2010The first lecture I was given, upon beginning high school, was by Dr Ross Millikan, headmaster of Carey Baptist Grammar School in Melbourne. The topic of this speech was “The Burden of Privilege”. Anyone who knows Dr Millikan may disagree but I remember him as a quiet man with an unquestionable authority about him, the ...
  • March 2010 March 3, 2010So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for ...
  • February 2010 January 30, 2010Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself. My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering ...
Design Blog
Design Blog
Design Blog
Design Blog
  • July 2010 July 26, 2010 Vernacular architecture does not go through fashion cycles. It is nearly immutable, indeed, unimprovable, since it serves its purpose to perfection. -   Bernard Rudofsky Consider and respond…
  • May 2010 May 30, 2010Architectural Darwinism – The Evolution and Importance of Traditional Structure As promised we’ll be discussing this concept in May’s design blog entry. I apologize for the late update to the site this month but I can guarantee it’s a topic worth waiting for. This topic was a something I first came across when reading a paper ...
  • April 2010 April 8, 2010The first lecture I was given, upon beginning high school, was by Dr Ross Millikan, headmaster of Carey Baptist Grammar School in Melbourne. The topic of this speech was “The Burden of Privilege”. Anyone who knows Dr Millikan may disagree but I remember him as a quiet man with an unquestionable authority about him, the ...
  • March 2010 March 3, 2010So March is upon us, and I am late with my second ever entry… Whoops. I will however blame the month of February for this problem as it is a silly month with only 28 days, clearly not enough days to complete an blog entry befitting such marvellous readers as yourselves (enough?). The topic for ...
  • February 2010 January 30, 2010Welcome! DesignResolve.com is finally up and running after spending almost a year in the pipeline. This will be the first blog entry on the site and I’ll be doing my best introduce you to the site, the work and myself. My name is Christopher James Constantine, a recent graduate of Monash University’s Bachelor of Civil Engineering ...
Design Blog
Toolbox

Links

Professional Associations:
www.ewb.org.au – Engineers without Borders Australia
www.architectswithoutfrontiers.com.au – Architects without Frontiers Australia
www.engineersaustralia.org.au – Engineers Australia
www.apesma.asn.au – Association of Professional Engineers, Scientists and Managers, Australia
www.eng.monash.edu.au – Monash Engineering Faculty
www.architecture.com.au – Australian Institute of Architecture

Design Favourites:
www.constantinework.com – DPJ Constantine’s online portfolio
www.cardplace.co.uk – UK card manufacturer
www.mattblatt.com.au – Furniture
www.newedge-thebrewery.com – Design Firm

Item of the Month Archive

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The Report

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Appendices

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3.4 – Connections
Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in
deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of
pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members
sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable
loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature
review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the
behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined
that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels
resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall
connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure
limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for
people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections
can be seen below in figure 1.

Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections can be seen below in figure 1.

Figure 1: Wall panel to floor connection details (deep and shallow embedment connections) (Balendra et al, 2009, pp.1833)

part-1-34

In contrast implementing a system with high rigidity of connections would result in shear deflections dominating and failure being more explosive. The survey of pertinent literature on pre-cast concrete connections completed resulted in a consensus that a jointed structure with shallow embedded connections would be the most suitable solution for any pre-cast system to be deployed in areas of low to medium seismicity.

3.4 – Connections
Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in
deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of
pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members
sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable
loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature
review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the
behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined
that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels
resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall
connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure
limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for
people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections
can be seen below in figure 1.

Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections can be seen below in figure 1.

Figure 1: Wall panel to floor connection details (deep and shallow embedment connections) (Balendra et al, 2009, pp.1833)

part-1-34

In contrast implementing a system with high rigidity of connections would result in shear deflections dominating and failure being more explosive. The survey of pertinent literature on pre-cast concrete connections completed resulted in a consensus that a jointed structure with shallow embedded connections would be the most suitable solution for any pre-cast system to be deployed in areas of low to medium seismicity.

part-1-34

part-1-34

3.1 – Low Density Concretes
The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials
required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also
extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density
concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use
in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the
systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes
and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also
debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

Demirboga and Kan’s 2009 work on concrete composites suggests that expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) provide an unconventional method for reducing concrete density. Traditionally, EPS aggregate has not been used in structural concrete due to low strength but the literature suggests that thermal modification can dramatically increase the strength of concrete produced with these aggregates. This process requires the waste foam to be exposed to 130 ° C temperatures for 15 minutes. Testing carried out by Demirboga et al used EPS aggregate replacement rates ranging between 0% to 100% at 25% intervals. The results of testing on EPS aggregate concrete have shown that even at high levels of replacement it is still has sufficient strength to be utilised in semi-structural members. Compressive strengths of 12.58Mpa have been achieved for 100% replacement (Demirboga & Kan, 2009). The test results for various mix compositions can be seen below with mix type C1 containing the highest proportion of modified expanded polystyrene foams.

Table 1: Density, UPV, compressive and splitting tensile strength of MEPS concrete (from Demirbog et al, 2009, pp.491)

Density, UPV

Even less conventional than polystyrene aggregates are animal protein foaming agents. These admixtures are less expensive than traditional chemical agents whose cost and limited availability preclude them from use in developing countries. Effectively dried, atomised cows’ blood, the use of atomised bovine haemoglobin is explored by Dheilly, Laidoudi, Queneudec & Remadnia’s paper from Construction and Building Materials journal. The positives associated with such an agent are not only in aggregate savings due to low density but also in the increase of flowability and workability they exhibit. Haemoglobin to cement ratios (H/C) up to 2% have been trialled with density reductions of approximately 30% (Dheilly et al, 2009).

Table 2: Evolution of bulk density(kg/m3)of the composites as a function of H/C and mixing time used after haemoglobin introduction as regard of the bulk density of a mortar without haemoglobin (1865.39 kg/m3)(Dheilly et al, 2009, pp.3121)

part-1-31b

To maintain concrete strength, mixing must be limited to one minute. Any mixing exceeding one minute in duration results in a dramatic loss in concrete strength as can be seen in Table 2. If one minute of mixing is carried out with a 2% haemoglobin to cement ratio a mix density of 1421kg/m3 with compressive strength of 20MPa can be acheived. This method of producing low density concrete is ideal for third world countries as it decreases the amount of raw materials consumed and utilises food production wastes in the form of animal blood.

The third state of the art method for producing low density concrete with potential applications in third world countries is high volume fly ash mixtures. Eshel, Nisnevich, Schlesinger & Sirotin document testing results with concrete strength of 19MPa corresponding to 1450kg/m3 density. Fly ash is generated as a result of coal fuelled power plants, which represent the majority of power production in many third world countries. Withstanding the obvious benefits of fly ash based concretes, there have been questions raised in the past regarding its long term strength and subsequent safety for structural members. The work of Carette, Malhorta & Sivasundaram shows the long term strength of concrete prepared with high volumes of fly ash. Their work removes any doubt about the serviceability of fly ash aggregate concrete with no thermal cracking evident and negligible chloride ion permeability exhibited under long term loading.

All low density concretes have increased thermal efficiency and many of the technologies above have benefits in relation to recycling and reuse. Foaming solutions however provide increased workability which is desirable as simple construction techniques are a necessary requirement to utilise the informal construction sector. The literature surveyed identified three possible techniques for producing low density concretes in developing countries. These sources also provided evidence advocating the use of these concretes in structural applications. Of the technologies reviewed the most promising development in pre-cast concrete manufacture must be that of animal protein admixtures. This simple and accessible option for producing a foaming agent provides a recycling and reuse benefit in conjunction with improvements in constructability.

3.1 – Low Density Concretes
The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials
required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also
extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density
concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use
in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the
systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes
and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also
debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

Demirboga and Kan’s 2009 work on concrete composites suggests that expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) provide an unconventional method for reducing concrete density. Traditionally, EPS aggregate has not been used in structural concrete due to low strength but the literature suggests that thermal modification can dramatically increase the strength of concrete produced with these aggregates. This process requires the waste foam to be exposed to 130 ° C temperatures for 15 minutes. Testing carried out by Demirboga et al used EPS aggregate replacement rates ranging between 0% to 100% at 25% intervals. The results of testing on EPS aggregate concrete have shown that even at high levels of replacement it is still has sufficient strength to be utilised in semi-structural members. Compressive strengths of 12.58Mpa have been achieved for 100% replacement (Demirboga & Kan, 2009). The test results for various mix compositions can be seen below with mix type C1 containing the highest proportion of modified expanded polystyrene foams.

Table 1: Density, UPV, compressive and splitting tensile strength of MEPS concrete (from Demirbog et al, 2009, pp.491)

Density, UPV

Even less conventional than polystyrene aggregates are animal protein foaming agents. These admixtures are less expensive than traditional chemical agents whose cost and limited availability preclude them from use in developing countries. Effectively dried, atomised cows’ blood, the use of atomised bovine haemoglobin is explored by Dheilly, Laidoudi, Queneudec & Remadnia’s paper from Construction and Building Materials journal. The positives associated with such an agent are not only in aggregate savings due to low density but also in the increase of flowability and workability they exhibit. Haemoglobin to cement ratios (H/C) up to 2% have been trialled with density reductions of approximately 30% (Dheilly et al, 2009).

Table 2: Evolution of bulk density(kg/m3)of the composites as a function of H/C and mixing time used after haemoglobin introduction as regard of the bulk density of a mortar without haemoglobin (1865.39 kg/m3)(Dheilly et al, 2009, pp.3121)

part-1-31b

To maintain concrete strength, mixing must be limited to one minute. Any mixing exceeding one minute in duration results in a dramatic loss in concrete strength as can be seen in Table 2. If one minute of mixing is carried out with a 2% haemoglobin to cement ratio a mix density of 1421kg/m3 with compressive strength of 20MPa can be acheived. This method of producing low density concrete is ideal for third world countries as it decreases the amount of raw materials consumed and utilises food production wastes in the form of animal blood.

The third state of the art method for producing low density concrete with potential applications in third world countries is high volume fly ash mixtures. Eshel, Nisnevich, Schlesinger & Sirotin document testing results with concrete strength of 19MPa corresponding to 1450kg/m3 density. Fly ash is generated as a result of coal fuelled power plants, which represent the majority of power production in many third world countries. Withstanding the obvious benefits of fly ash based concretes, there have been questions raised in the past regarding its long term strength and subsequent safety for structural members. The work of Carette, Malhorta & Sivasundaram shows the long term strength of concrete prepared with high volumes of fly ash. Their work removes any doubt about the serviceability of fly ash aggregate concrete with no thermal cracking evident and negligible chloride ion permeability exhibited under long term loading.

All low density concretes have increased thermal efficiency and many of the technologies above have benefits in relation to recycling and reuse. Foaming solutions however provide increased workability which is desirable as simple construction techniques are a necessary requirement to utilise the informal construction sector. The literature surveyed identified three possible techniques for producing low density concretes in developing countries. These sources also provided evidence advocating the use of these concretes in structural applications. Of the technologies reviewed the most promising development in pre-cast concrete manufacture must be that of animal protein admixtures. This simple and accessible option for producing a foaming agent provides a recycling and reuse benefit in conjunction with improvements in constructability.

part-1-31b

part-1-31b

Density, UPV

Density, UPV

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is aimed at surveying the
state of the art modern construction
methods used in pre-cast concrete
systems to suit today’s low cost
housing needs worldwide. The
following review will provide a basis
for design formulation that will be
included as Part 2 of this submission.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation that will be included as Part 2 of this submission.

Executive Summary

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review provides a basis for design formulation that is included as Part 2 of this submission. A survey of literature has allowed determination of the current housing needs and appropriate technologies have been identified for low cost applications.

The current housing situation in developing countries is unsustainable and existing low cost housing systems are not economically viable for governments and their populations. Solutions have been proposed by various literature sources with the most common being a return to conventional building practices and utilisation of the informal construction sector. These two practices increase the link that any scheme would have with its owners and environment whilst reducing project costs.

Consideration of the above housing solutions has led to a selection of feasible precast concrete technologies being analysed. The techniques discussed are low density concretes, recycled aggregates, appropriate connections and flexible construction practices. These technologies can potentially be used together to drastically reduce the cost of building and simplify building processes to make use of informal construction sectors. The combination of technologies used would depend largely on availability of materials within the vicinity of the works. Literature resources reviewed highlight the importance of using local and readily available materials. Many recycled aggregates can be locally sourced and concerns over their material properties can be offset with other mix constituents such as crushed class or polyethylene terephthalat (PET).

This report summaries pertinent literature on state of the art technology associated with pre-cast concrete. It was found that there are many such techniques suitable for low cost housing. An ideal system would utilise recycled and local aggregates to create a low density concrete. Porosity issues associated with recycled aggregates could be offset by the introduction of crushed glass or PET aggregates. This concrete would be reinforced using short fibre reinforcement and cast in a fabric formwork. Pre-cast slab construction would allow the centralisation of skill sets, alleviating labour shortages and allow on site erection to be carried out by the informal construction sector.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

1.2 Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context

2.0 Current Housing Systems

3.0 Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

3.1 Low Density Concretes

3.2 Recycled Aggregates

3.3 Reinforcement

3.4 Connections

3.5 Construction Practices

4.0 Design Considerations

5.0 Conclusion

6.0 Project Management Statement

7.0 Glossary

8.0 References

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

Next page: 2.0 – Application & Context

Previous page: Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

Next page: 2.0 – Application & Context

Previous page: Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

Next page: 3.0 – Moral Considerations

Previous page: 1.0 – Introduction

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

Next page: 3.0 – Moral Considerations

Previous page: 2.0 – Application & Context

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

Next page: 3.0 – Moral Considerations

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

Next page: 2.0 – Application & Context

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

Next: 2.0 – Application & Context

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

Next: 2.0 – Application & Context

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

10.0 – Appendices
10.0 – Appendices
9.0 – References
Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’,
Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.
Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’,
Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.
Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and
Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.
Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load
bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30,
pp. 1831-1841.
Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily
Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.
Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength
Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 12, pp. 263-270.
Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from
industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.
Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete
blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 29, pp. 616-625.
Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal
proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled
PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.
Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School,
Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, ‘Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models’, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt-up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

9.0 – References
Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’,
Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.
Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’,
Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.
Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and
Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.
Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load
bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30,
pp. 1831-1841.
Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily
Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.
Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength
Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 12, pp. 263-270.
Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from
industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.
Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete
blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 29, pp. 616-625.
Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal
proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled
PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.
Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School,
Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, ‘Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models’, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt-up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

9.0 – References
Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’,
Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.
Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’,
Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.
Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and
Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.
Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load
bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30,
pp. 1831-1841.
Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily
Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.
Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength
Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 12, pp. 263-270.
Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from
industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.
Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete
blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites,
vol. 29, pp. 616-625.
Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal
proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled
PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.
Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School,
Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, ‘Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, ‘A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build Onefamily Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990, ‘Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, ‘Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates’, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, ‘Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, ‘Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models’, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt-up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

8.0 – Conclusion
The problem of housing shortages in developing and underdeveloped countries is
one with many possible solutions that each incorporates a wide range of technologies.
One such solution is presented in this report. It is a concept proposal incorporating
the use of pre-cast concrete wall panels, cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded
connections to secure the panels. Design calculations have been carried out in
accordance with HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students -
Structural engineering. These calculations will require further refinement for any such
system to be constructed.

The problem of housing shortages in developing and underdeveloped countries is one with many possible solutions that each incorporates a wide range of technologies. One such solution is presented in this report. It is a concept proposal incorporating the use of pre-cast concrete wall panels, cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections to secure the panels. Design calculations have been carried out in accordance with HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students - Structural engineering. These calculations will require further refinement for any such system to be constructed.

As detailed in this report, the design solution presented utilises recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels. These panels are to be connected using shallow embedded connections and restraint at the bottom is to be provided by cast in-situ footings. Roofing is not covered in this design as pre-cast concrete panels are a less viable alternative to traditional roofing methods. This is due to the low flexural strength of un-reinforced precast concrete strength. The design solution is a modest one, which addresses the need for low cost housing that has thus far been neglected due to a moral threshold inhibiting developers and government agencies. It encompasses architectural design elements prevalent in third world countries and provides for housing two family units within one structure.

This general solution is flexible in application and can be adjusted to facilitate different mix properties and construction techniques. The flexibility of the design solution is vital to its viable application in the third world as raw materials must be readily available and cost effective.

8.0 – Conclusion
The problem of housing shortages in developing and underdeveloped countries is
one with many possible solutions that each incorporates a wide range of technologies.
One such solution is presented in this report. It is a concept proposal incorporating
the use of pre-cast concrete wall panels, cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded
connections to secure the panels. Design calculations have been carried out in
accordance with HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students -
Structural engineering. These calculations will require further refinement for any such
system to be constructed.

The problem of housing shortages in developing and underdeveloped countries is one with many possible solutions that each incorporates a wide range of technologies. One such solution is presented in this report. It is a concept proposal incorporating the use of pre-cast concrete wall panels, cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections to secure the panels. Design calculations have been carried out in accordance with HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students - Structural engineering. These calculations will require further refinement for any such system to be constructed.

As detailed in this report, the design solution presented utilises recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels. These panels are to be connected using shallow embedded connections and restraint at the bottom is to be provided by cast in-situ footings. Roofing is not covered in this design as pre-cast concrete panels are a less viable alternative to traditional roofing methods. This is due to the low flexural strength of un-reinforced precast concrete strength. The design solution is a modest one, which addresses the need for low cost housing that has thus far been neglected due to a moral threshold inhibiting developers and government agencies. It encompasses architectural design elements prevalent in third world countries and provides for housing two family units within one structure.

This general solution is flexible in application and can be adjusted to facilitate different mix properties and construction techniques. The flexibility of the design solution is vital to its viable application in the third world as raw materials must be readily available and cost effective.

8.0 – Conclusion
7.0 – Variables
In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the
materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of
different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system
utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review
completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled
aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible
application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork,
recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork, recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

Fabric formwork provides the opportunity for cheaper and more flexible construction techniques. Added to this it has possible application to improve aesthetics and provide lateral restraint. As more research on the topic is completed, this technology could well become the most exciting new tool in casting aesthetically pleasing panels for tilt-up construction. The use of fabric formwork is also desirable as it makes the construction process even more flexible and removes the need for expensive mouldings.

Recycled glass and atomised bovine haemoglobin technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve mix characteristics. Recycled glass can be used to decrease porosity in instances where other recycled aggregates reduce mix workability. In cases where recycled aggregate mixes exhibit higher tensile strengths than expected, the animal waste foaming agent can be used to decrease concrete density. This reduction in density would save materials and improve insulation properties.

The technologies implemented in this design are the most basic and readily available across third world countries. Scope has been left for further technologies to be incorporated based on their feasibility for a specific project.

7.0 – Variables
In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the
materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of
different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system
utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review
completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled
aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible
application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork,
recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork, recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

Fabric formwork provides the opportunity for cheaper and more flexible construction techniques. Added to this it has possible application to improve aesthetics and provide lateral restraint. As more research on the topic is completed, this technology could well become the most exciting new tool in casting aesthetically pleasing panels for tilt-up construction. The use of fabric formwork is also desirable as it makes the construction process even more flexible and removes the need for expensive mouldings.

Recycled glass and atomised bovine haemoglobin technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve mix characteristics. Recycled glass can be used to decrease porosity in instances where other recycled aggregates reduce mix workability. In cases where recycled aggregate mixes exhibit higher tensile strengths than expected, the animal waste foaming agent can be used to decrease concrete density. This reduction in density would save materials and improve insulation properties.

The technologies implemented in this design are the most basic and readily available across third world countries. Scope has been left for further technologies to be incorporated based on their feasibility for a specific project.

7.0 – Variables
In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the
materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of
different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system
utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review
completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled
aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible
application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork,
recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork, recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

Fabric formwork provides the opportunity for cheaper and more flexible construction techniques. Added to this it has possible application to improve aesthetics and provide lateral restraint. As more research on the topic is completed, this technology could well become the most exciting new tool in casting aesthetically pleasing panels for tilt-up construction. The use of fabric formwork is also desirable as it makes the construction process even more flexible and removes the need for expensive mouldings.

Recycled glass and atomised bovine haemoglobin technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve mix characteristics. Recycled glass can be used to decrease porosity in instances where other recycled aggregates reduce mix workability. In cases where recycled aggregate mixes exhibit higher tensile strengths than expected, the animal waste foaming agent can be used to decrease concrete density. This reduction in density would save materials and improve insulation properties.

The technologies implemented in this design are the most basic and readily available across third world countries. Scope has been left for further technologies to be incorporated based on their feasibility for a specific project.

7.0 – Variables
In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the
materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of
different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system
utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review
completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled
aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible
application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork,
recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

In the application of this project as a solution to low cost housing problems, the materials and construction practices must be varied to maintain its viability. The use of different combinations of aggregates, admixtures and formwork is vital to the system utilising local materials and integrating with existing infrastructure. The literature review completed as Part 1 of this project identified many technologies other than the recycled aggregate and shallow embedded connections. Specifically those that still have possible application to the design as presented in this, Part 2, of the report are fabric formwork, recycled glass aggregate and atomised bovine haemoglobin.

Fabric formwork provides the opportunity for cheaper and more flexible construction techniques. Added to this it has possible application to improve aesthetics and provide lateral restraint. As more research on the topic is completed, this technology could well become the most exciting new tool in casting aesthetically pleasing panels for tilt-up construction. The use of fabric formwork is also desirable as it makes the construction process even more flexible and removes the need for expensive mouldings.

Recycled glass and atomised bovine haemoglobin technologies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve mix characteristics. Recycled glass can be used to decrease porosity in instances where other recycled aggregates reduce mix workability. In cases where recycled aggregate mixes exhibit higher tensile strengths than expected, the animal waste foaming agent can be used to decrease concrete density. This reduction in density would save materials and improve insulation properties.

The technologies implemented in this design are the most basic and readily available across third world countries. Scope has been left for further technologies to be incorporated based on their feasibility for a specific project.

6.0 – Design Summary
The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in
most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South
America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for
a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will
be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process
will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these
structural concrete components.

The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these structural concrete components.

Figure 4: Layout and 3D rendering of structural component

Layout3D Render

Trenching is to be excavated for the footings and the panels erected in them via traditional tilt-up methods described in Part 1 of this submission. The footings will then be poured to fill these trenches and hold the panels in place. Before the bracing is removed the panels will be fixed together at the top using the connection detailed later in the report.

Structural sizing and calculations were carried out based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. The major features of the design, as derived from these standards, can be seen below in Table 1 opposite.

Table 1: Structural Design Features

Structural Design Features

Calculations leading to these sizings can be found in Appendix A attached to this report. They allow for the use of a conventional roofing system (of up to 182 kN/m in weight) which will allow better connection between the structure and its environment. The structure roof is to be supported by the panels running down the length of the building and should be of a low profile nature as to limit sail area for wind loading. A suggested configuration of support beams can be seen below in Figure 5 below.

Beam Configuration

In sizing the wall panels the major controlling factor was resisting bending moments associated with lateral loadings, wind loading and earthquake loading. In any design where minimal reinforcement is used, the flexural strength of concrete is a governing factor given the relatively high compressive strength of the material. Detailed engineering drawings have been completed and are provided in Appendix B.

Architecturally the building has two distinct living modules at each end of the floor plan. They are separated into one larger general purpose are of four by eight meters and two four by four rooms intended to provide sleeping quarters. At the centre of the layout is a secured courtyard. This area is an important design feature in many of the traditional housing configurations found in third world countries. The wall for each living module facing onto the courtyard is sized at only two meters, leaving a 0.5 meter void at the top to allow for light and ventilation. Figure 6 below shows two three-dimensional renderings of the interior of the structure.

Figure 6: Interior views of structure

Interior View 1

Interior View 2

In addition to the applications of this design as a standalone structure, slight adjustments to the orientation of the interior courtyards can make it possible to configure multiple units for compound arrangements. The following figure shows how changing the alignment of the secure outdoor space changes the areas of access.

Figure 7: Adjusted floor plan

Adjusted Floor Plan

Once these changes have been made, there are endless possible configurations. The structure can be employed to form the high density plots discussed by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper titled ‘If past traditions were building blocks – A perspective on low income housing in development in Nigerian cities’. Such a configuration are shown in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: High density compound configuration

High Density Compound ConfigThe solution provided by this report has been designed to AS 3600 Australian Standard for Concrete structures as presented in HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This SAI publication is aimed at engineering students and although the simplistic nature of this design means most actions are easily analysed, it is this author’s opinion that further analysis should be conducted before implementation of any such system.

6.0 – Design Summary
The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in
most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South
America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for
a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will
be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process
will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these
structural concrete components.

The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these structural concrete components.

Figure 4: Layout and 3D rendering of structural component

Layout3D Render

Trenching is to be excavated for the footings and the panels erected in them via traditional tilt-up methods described in Part 1 of this submission. The footings will then be poured to fill these trenches and hold the panels in place. Before the bracing is removed the panels will be fixed together at the top using the connection detailed later in the report.

Structural sizing and calculations were carried out based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. The major features of the design, as derived from these standards, can be seen below in Table 1 opposite.

Table 1: Structural Design Features

Structural Design Features

Calculations leading to these sizings can be found in Appendix A attached to this report. They allow for the use of a conventional roofing system (of up to 182 kN/m in weight) which will allow better connection between the structure and its environment. The structure roof is to be supported by the panels running down the length of the building and should be of a low profile nature as to limit sail area for wind loading. A suggested configuration of support beams can be seen below in Figure 5 below.

Beam Configuration

In sizing the wall panels the major controlling factor was resisting bending moments associated with lateral loadings, wind loading and earthquake loading. In any design where minimal reinforcement is used, the flexural strength of concrete is a governing factor given the relatively high compressive strength of the material. Detailed engineering drawings have been completed and are provided in Appendix B.

Architecturally the building has two distinct living modules at each end of the floor plan. They are separated into one larger general purpose are of four by eight meters and two four by four rooms intended to provide sleeping quarters. At the centre of the layout is a secured courtyard. This area is an important design feature in many of the traditional housing configurations found in third world countries. The wall for each living module facing onto the courtyard is sized at only two meters, leaving a 0.5 meter void at the top to allow for light and ventilation. Figure 6 below shows two three-dimensional renderings of the interior of the structure.

Figure 6: Interior views of structure

Interior View 1

Interior View 2

In addition to the applications of this design as a standalone structure, slight adjustments to the orientation of the interior courtyards can make it possible to configure multiple units for compound arrangements. The following figure shows how changing the alignment of the secure outdoor space changes the areas of access.

Figure 7: Adjusted floor plan

Adjusted Floor Plan

Once these changes have been made, there are endless possible configurations. The structure can be employed to form the high density plots discussed by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper titled ‘If past traditions were building blocks – A perspective on low income housing in development in Nigerian cities’. Such a configuration are shown in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: High density compound configuration

High Density Compound ConfigThe solution provided by this report has been designed to AS 3600 Australian Standard for Concrete structures as presented in HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This SAI publication is aimed at engineering students and although the simplistic nature of this design means most actions are easily analysed, it is this author’s opinion that further analysis should be conducted before implementation of any such system.

6.0 – Design Summary
The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in
most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South
America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for
a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will
be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process
will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these
structural concrete components.

The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these structural concrete components.

Figure 4: Layout and 3D rendering of structural component

Layout3D Render

Trenching is to be excavated for the footings and the panels erected in them via traditional tilt-up methods described in Part 1 of this submission. The footings will then be poured to fill these trenches and hold the panels in place. Before the bracing is removed the panels will be fixed together at the top using the connection detailed later in the report.

Structural sizing and calculations were carried out based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. The major features of the design, as derived from these standards, can be seen below in Table 1 opposite.

Table 1: Structural Design Features

Structural Design Features

Calculations leading to these sizings can be found in Appendix A attached to this report. They allow for the use of a conventional roofing system (of up to 182 kN/m in weight) which will allow better connection between the structure and its environment. The structure roof is to be supported by the panels running down the length of the building and should be of a low profile nature as to limit sail area for wind loading. A suggested configuration of support beams can be seen below in Figure 5 below.

Beam Configuration

In sizing the wall panels the major controlling factor was resisting bending moments associated with lateral loadings, wind loading and earthquake loading. In any design where minimal reinforcement is used, the flexural strength of concrete is a governing factor given the relatively high compressive strength of the material. Detailed engineering drawings have been completed and are provided in Appendix B.

Architecturally the building has two distinct living modules at each end of the floor plan. They are separated into one larger general purpose are of four by eight meters and two four by four rooms intended to provide sleeping quarters. At the centre of the layout is a secured courtyard. This area is an important design feature in many of the traditional housing configurations found in third world countries. The wall for each living module facing onto the courtyard is sized at only two meters, leaving a 0.5 meter void at the top to allow for light and ventilation. Figure 6 below shows two three-dimensional renderings of the interior of the structure.

Figure 6: Interior views of structure

Interior View 1

Interior View 2

In addition to the applications of this design as a standalone structure, slight adjustments to the orientation of the interior courtyards can make it possible to configure multiple units for compound arrangements. The following figure shows how changing the alignment of the secure outdoor space changes the areas of access.

Figure 7: Adjusted floor plan

Adjusted Floor Plan

Once these changes have been made, there are endless possible configurations. The structure can be employed to form the high density plots discussed by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper titled ‘If past traditions were building blocks – A perspective on low income housing in development in Nigerian cities’. Such a configuration are shown in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: High density compound configuration

High Density Compound ConfigThe solution provided by this report has been designed to AS 3600 Australian Standard for Concrete structures as presented in HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This SAI publication is aimed at engineering students and although the simplistic nature of this design means most actions are easily analysed, it is this author’s opinion that further analysis should be conducted before implementation of any such system.

6.0 – Design Summary
The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in
most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South
America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for
a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will
be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process
will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these
structural concrete components.

The design presented takes into account traditional architectural features present in most developing African and Asian countries but also found in many of those in South America. This housing unit is designed to provide for two family units with provision for a secured, outdoor space. Pre-cast concrete panels and cast in-situ concrete footings will be used to form the balance of the structure and this is what the detailed design process will centre on. The figure below shows the layout of the site and a 3D rendering of these structural concrete components.

Figure 4: Layout and 3D rendering of structural component

Layout3D Render

Trenching is to be excavated for the footings and the panels erected in them via traditional tilt-up methods described in Part 1 of this submission. The footings will then be poured to fill these trenches and hold the panels in place. Before the bracing is removed the panels will be fixed together at the top using the connection detailed later in the report.

Structural sizing and calculations were carried out based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. The major features of the design, as derived from these standards, can be seen below in Table 1 opposite.

Table 1: Structural Design Features

Structural Design Features

Calculations leading to these sizings can be found in Appendix A attached to this report. They allow for the use of a conventional roofing system (of up to 182 kN/m in weight) which will allow better connection between the structure and its environment. The structure roof is to be supported by the panels running down the length of the building and should be of a low profile nature as to limit sail area for wind loading. A suggested configuration of support beams can be seen below in Figure 5 below.

Beam Configuration

In sizing the wall panels the major controlling factor was resisting bending moments associated with lateral loadings, wind loading and earthquake loading. In any design where minimal reinforcement is used, the flexural strength of concrete is a governing factor given the relatively high compressive strength of the material. Detailed engineering drawings have been completed and are provided in Appendix B.

Architecturally the building has two distinct living modules at each end of the floor plan. They are separated into one larger general purpose are of four by eight meters and two four by four rooms intended to provide sleeping quarters. At the centre of the layout is a secured courtyard. This area is an important design feature in many of the traditional housing configurations found in third world countries. The wall for each living module facing onto the courtyard is sized at only two meters, leaving a 0.5 meter void at the top to allow for light and ventilation. Figure 6 below shows two three-dimensional renderings of the interior of the structure.

Figure 6: Interior views of structure

Interior View 1

Interior View 2

In addition to the applications of this design as a standalone structure, slight adjustments to the orientation of the interior courtyards can make it possible to configure multiple units for compound arrangements. The following figure shows how changing the alignment of the secure outdoor space changes the areas of access.

Figure 7: Adjusted floor plan

Adjusted Floor Plan

Once these changes have been made, there are endless possible configurations. The structure can be employed to form the high density plots discussed by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper titled ‘If past traditions were building blocks – A perspective on low income housing in development in Nigerian cities’. Such a configuration are shown in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: High density compound configuration

High Density Compound Config

High Density Compound Config

High Density Compound Config

Adjusted Floor Plan

Adjusted Floor Plan

Interior View 2

Interior View 2

Interior View 1

Interior View 1

Beam Configuration

Beam Configuration

Structural Design Features

Structural Design Features

3D Render

3D Render

Layout

Layout

5.0 – Assumptions
In the design process for any project, key assumptions must be made and justified
to select specific design criteria. This is even more difficult when designing a general
solution to a problem prevalent across multiple continents. Given the design was
carried out using Australian design standards; the most appropriate site conditions were

In the design process for any project, key assumptions must be made and justified to select specific design criteria. This is even more difficult when designing a general solution to a problem prevalent across multiple continents. Given the design was carried out using Australian design standards; the most appropriate site conditions were selected. The variable nature and size of the Australian continent and stringent structural engineering standards applied makes it easy to identify a set of criteria applicable to conditions in countries such as those that are part of the third world. The design criterion selected for this project pertains to the flat central Australian dessert areas as such areas are common across the African continent and some of Asia. It must be noted that their application to solutions to be implemented in South America may be less viable and further analysis would be required if this was to occur.

The other assumptions that need to be made are largely pertaining to material properties. Recycled aggregate has been selected as the major constituent of the mix. This aggregate can achieve compressive strengths of 75MPa and above (Lam & Poon, 2008). 30MPa has been chosen as the representative compressive strength to allow for variation in mix characteristics and possible substitution of lighter density concretes subject to availability and financial viability. The other material properties that were assumed were when allowing for the weight of the roofing structure. A roof comprising of eight 150UB 14.0 beams and a covering of 0.8Colorbond sheeting was allowed for. Corrugated iron roofing was used as this material has wide spread availability even throughout the third world.

These assumptions may need to be adjusted based on the application of the project. The design provided is a general solution that can be tailored to meet the requirements of its specific application. Appropriate material testing an analysis should be conducted when resources and a roofing system are selected.

5.0 – Assumptions
In the design process for any project, key assumptions must be made and justified
to select specific design criteria. This is even more difficult when designing a general
solution to a problem prevalent across multiple continents. Given the design was
carried out using Australian design standards; the most appropriate site conditions were

In the design process for any project, key assumptions must be made and justified to select specific design criteria. This is even more difficult when designing a general solution to a problem prevalent across multiple continents. Given the design was carried out using Australian design standards; the most appropriate site conditions were selected. The variable nature and size of the Australian continent and stringent structural engineering standards applied makes it easy to identify a set of criteria applicable to conditions in countries such as those that are part of the third world. The design criterion selected for this project pertains to the flat central Australian dessert areas as such areas are common across the African continent and some of Asia. It must be noted that their application to solutions to be implemented in South America may be less viable and further analysis would be required if this was to occur.

The other assumptions that need to be made are largely pertaining to material properties. Recycled aggregate has been selected as the major constituent of the mix. This aggregate can achieve compressive strengths of 75MPa and above (Lam & Poon, 2008). 30MPa has been chosen as the representative compressive strength to allow for variation in mix characteristics and possible substitution of lighter density concretes subject to availability and financial viability. The other material properties that were assumed were when allowing for the weight of the roofing structure. A roof comprising of eight 150UB 14.0 beams and a covering of 0.8Colorbond sheeting was allowed for. Corrugated iron roofing was used as this material has wide spread availability even throughout the third world.

These assumptions may need to be adjusted based on the application of the project. The design provided is a general solution that can be tailored to meet the requirements of its specific application. Appropriate material testing an analysis should be conducted when resources and a roofing system are selected.

5.0 – Assumptions
In the design process for any project, key assumptions must be made and justified
to select specific design criteria. This is even more difficult when designing a general
solution to a problem prevalent across multiple continents. Given the design was
carried out using Australian design standards; the most appropriate site conditions were

In the design process for any project, key assumptions must be made and justified to select specific design criteria. This is even more difficult when designing a general solution to a problem prevalent across multiple continents. Given the design was carried out using Australian design standards; the most appropriate site conditions were selected. The variable nature and size of the Australian continent and stringent structural engineering standards applied makes it easy to identify a set of criteria applicable to conditions in countries such as those that are part of the third world. The design criterion selected for this project pertains to the flat central Australian dessert areas as such areas are common across the African continent and some of Asia. It must be noted that their application to solutions to be implemented in South America may be less viable and further analysis would be required if this was to occur.

The other assumptions that need to be made are largely pertaining to material properties. Recycled aggregate has been selected as the major constituent of the mix. This aggregate can achieve compressive strengths of 75MPa and above (Lam & Poon, 2008). 30MPa has been chosen as the representative compressive strength to allow for variation in mix characteristics and possible substitution of lighter density concretes subject to availability and financial viability. The other material properties that were assumed were when allowing for the weight of the roofing structure. A roof comprising

of eight 150UB 14.0 beams and a covering of 0.8Colorbond sheeting was allowed for.

Corrugated iron roofing was used as this material has wide spread availability even

throughout the third world.

These assumptions may need to be adjusted based on the application of the project.

The design provided is a general solution that can be tailored to meet the requirements

of its specific application. Appropriate material testing an analysis should be conducted

when resources and a roofing system are selected.

4.0 – Technologies to be Used
In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous
technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions.
The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions
are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These
technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section
following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented
concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions. The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

Recycled aggregates are a readily available and cost effective alternative to the natural aggregates traditionally used in concrete. Their use lowers the energy demand and consumption of operating materials. Given the limitations placed on disposal sites and shortages of natural resources, they are economically attractive as well as environmentally friendly (Arslan, 2005).

Shallow embedded connections were selected as the other most appropriate technology as many third world countries are in areas of moderate seismicity. A large proportion of Asian and South American developing countries are situated near or on tectonic fault lines that result in higher probabilities of seismic activity. The performance of shallow embedded connections in these areas has been discussed in Part 1 of this report. To summarise the findings of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson 2007, the failure of shallow embedded connections is less explosive and in cases where limit states are exceeded, structures most often retain their integrity. This behaviour allows for safe evacuation and demolition of buildings that are structurally unsound.

4.0 – Technologies to be Used
In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous
technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions.
The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions
are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These
technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section
following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented
concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions. The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

Recycled aggregates are a readily available and cost effective alternative to the natural aggregates traditionally used in concrete. Their use lowers the energy demand and consumption of operating materials. Given the limitations placed on disposal sites and shortages of natural resources, they are economically attractive as well as environmentally friendly (Arslan, 2005).

Shallow embedded connections were selected as the other most appropriate technology as many third world countries are in areas of moderate seismicity. A large proportion of Asian and South American developing countries are situated near or on tectonic fault lines that result in higher probabilities of seismic activity. The performance of shallow embedded connections in these areas has been discussed in Part 1 of this report. To summarise the findings of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson 2007, the failure of shallow embedded connections is less explosive and in cases where limit states are exceeded, structures most often retain their integrity. This behaviour allows for safe evacuation and demolition of buildings that are structurally unsound.

4.0 – Technologies to be Used
In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous
technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions.
The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions
are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These
technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section
following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented
concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions. The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

Recycled aggregates are a readily available and cost effective alternative to the natural aggregates traditionally used in concrete. Their use lowers the energy demand and consumption of operating materials. Given the limitations placed on disposal sites and shortages of natural resources, they are economically attractive as well as environmentally friendly (Arslan, 2005).

Shallow embedded connections were selected as the other most appropriate technology as many third world countries are in areas of moderate seismicity. A large proportion of Asian and South American developing countries are situated near or on tectonic fault lines that result in higher probabilities of seismic activity. The performance of shallow embedded connections in these areas has been discussed in Part 1 of this report. To summarise the findings of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson 2007, the failure of shallow embedded connections is less explosive and in cases where limit states are exceeded, structures most often retain their integrity. This behaviour allows for safe evacuation and demolition of buildings that are structurally unsound.

4.0 – Technologies to be Used
In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous
technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions.
The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions
are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These
technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section
following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented
concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

In the literature review presented as Part 1 of this submission, numerous technologies were identified for use in pre-cast concrete, low cost housing solutions. The technologies available across almost all countries requiring such housing solutions are what have been used in the formulation of the design presented in this report. These technologies are recycled aggregates and shallow embedded connections. In the section following the design summary, the various technologies that may be implemented concurrently will be discussed as possible variables.

Recycled aggregates are a readily available and cost effective alternative to the natural aggregates traditionally used in concrete. Their use lowers the energy demand and consumption of operating materials. Given the limitations placed on disposal sites and shortages of natural resources, they are economically attractive as well as environmentally friendly (Arslan, 2005).

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

3.0 – Moral Considerations
The minimum housing product traditionally delivered by low cost solutions is very
different from those provided by the informal sector. These low cost designs often
contradict well established traditional architectural and construction trends (Lizarralde
et al, 2008). The reason for this contradiction seems, in most cases, to be symptomatic
of a moral threshold. This threshold limits developers and government agencies from
delivering units consisting of four walls, a roof and a floor. It is common for many
administrators to think that anything below a certain standard is not a civilized house.
The view that a simple construction is fostering the spread of slum living, as shown in
Figure 3 below, is completely flawed.

The minimum housing product traditionally delivered by low cost solutions is very different from those provided by the informal sector. These low cost designs often contradict well established traditional architectural and construction trends (Lizarralde et al, 2008). The reason for this contradiction seems, in most cases, to be symptomatic of a moral threshold. This threshold limits developers and government agencies from delivering units consisting of four walls, a roof and a floor. It is common for many administrators to think that anything below a certain standard is not a civilized house. The view that a simple construction is fostering the spread of slum living, as shown in Figure 3 below, is completely flawed.

Figure 3: Slum conditions in India

part-2-3This is one of the biggest obstacles in implementing simple housing solutions as a core of projects in developing countries. These projects are crucial in bridging the gap between formal of housing solutions that tend to be too expensive and encourage the current sub-standard living conditions depicted above.

3.0 – Moral Considerations
The minimum housing product traditionally delivered by low cost solutions is very
different from those provided by the informal sector. These low cost designs often
contradict well established traditional architectural and construction trends (Lizarralde
et al, 2008). The reason for this contradiction seems, in most cases, to be symptomatic
of a moral threshold. This threshold limits developers and government agencies from
delivering units consisting of four walls, a roof and a floor. It is common for many
administrators to think that anything below a certain standard is not a civilized house.
The view that a simple construction is fostering the spread of slum living, as shown in
Figure 3 below, is completely flawed.

The minimum housing product traditionally delivered by low cost solutions is very different from those provided by the informal sector. These low cost designs often contradict well established traditional architectural and construction trends (Lizarralde et al, 2008). The reason for this contradiction seems, in most cases, to be symptomatic of a moral threshold. This threshold limits developers and government agencies from delivering units consisting of four walls, a roof and a floor. It is common for many administrators to think that anything below a certain standard is not a civilized house. The view that a simple construction is fostering the spread of slum living, as shown in Figure 3 below, is completely flawed.

Figure 3: Slum conditions in India

part-2-3This is one of the biggest obstacles in implementing simple housing solutions as a core of projects in developing countries. These projects are crucial in bridging the gap between formal of housing solutions that tend to be too expensive and encourage the current sub-standard living conditions depicted above.

3.0 – Moral Considerations
The minimum housing product traditionally delivered by low cost solutions is very
different from those provided by the informal sector. These low cost designs often
contradict well established traditional architectural and construction trends (Lizarralde
et al, 2008). The reason for this contradiction seems, in most cases, to be symptomatic
of a moral threshold. This threshold limits developers and government agencies from
delivering units consisting of four walls, a roof and a floor. It is common for many
administrators to think that anything below a certain standard is not a civilized house.
The view that a simple construction is fostering the spread of slum living, as shown in
Figure 3 below, is completely flawed.

The minimum housing product traditionally delivered by low cost solutions is very different from those provided by the informal sector. These low cost designs often contradict well established traditional architectural and construction trends (Lizarralde et al, 2008). The reason for this contradiction seems, in most cases, to be symptomatic of a moral threshold. This threshold limits developers and government agencies from delivering units consisting of four walls, a roof and a floor. It is common for many administrators to think that anything below a certain standard is not a civilized house. The view that a simple construction is fostering the spread of slum living, as shown in Figure 3 below, is completely flawed.

Figure 3: Slum conditions in India

part-2-3

part-2-3

part-2-3

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

It was found in the same paper that the high occurrence of urban poverty has led to almost 70% of households in urban area consisting of one room dwelling share by more than one family unit. Multiple households share bathrooms, kitchens and toilets. To provide adequate infrastructure multiple family units must be housed in one dwelling and demand for security in some of these areas makes compound housing the only viable option.

Housing needs in these countries are increasing exponentially in line with large population growth. In Nigeria alone 200,000 new housing units were required each year to meet the growing housing need (Ikejiofor, 1999). This need does not account for the current housing shortages which are estimated to be in the millions. Housing data is difficult to source for much of the third world due to the informal nature of its construction practices and absence of organisation in its planning. Given that the Nigerian experience is representative of much of the third world, the need for housing can be extrapolated. Nigeria has a population of approximately 124 million and the third world conservatively 6 billion. This large population means low cost housing demand could be as high as ten million units per year.

2.0 – Application & Context
The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or
underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and
building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries
economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods,
materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries
in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

The nature of third world countries, is that by definition they are developing or underdeveloped in their infrastructure. This deficiency limits the possible technologies and building practices that can be implemented. In designing housing for third world countries economics dictate that housing construction must integrate with traditional methods, materials and designs (Ikejiofor, 1999). Figure 1 below illustrates the third world countries in green (first world countries are shown in green and second world in red).

Figure 1: Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

The current low cost housing systems in these countries are often inadequate or inaccessible. Costs associated with the formal construction sector and large quantities of natural resources make them too expensive for both governments and their constituents (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). These high costs mean that in many instances the informal construction sector must meet housing needs. Characteristics of these houses are explored by Uche Ikejiofor in his paper for the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works and Housing 1998. In summary these houses can be described as uncomfortable, rudimentary infrastructure whose high densities can lead to congestion, unhygienic conditions and an absence of organisation. In Figure 2 below, an example of such dwellings can be seen.

Figure 2: Informal Housing in Mubai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

Informal Housing in Mumbai, India

Globe – Third World Countries

Globe - Third World Countries

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

1.0 – Introduction
This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The
design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and
administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third
world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected
and discussed in Part 1 of this report.
The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral
considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on
which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and
immediate housing shortages and concerns.

This report provides a preliminary design option for low cost housing applications. The design presented has been based on initial consultation with architectural, engineering and administrative professionals who have an interest in alleviating the housing shortages in third world countries. Details on possible layouts, designs and applicable technologies were collected and discussed in Part 1 of this report.

The following body of work will cover the desired application for this design, the moral considerations with which it was formed, technologies to be used and the assumptions on which it was compiled. The design is aimed at third world applications to alleviate growing and immediate housing shortages and concerns.

In completing the detailed design and compiling the literature review attached as Part 1 of this report, the design presented has changed quite noticeably from that included as a concept during preliminary reporting of this project. Provision has been made for a water tank to be included but now as a free standing unit within the courtyard. This was seen to be  a flexible alternative and would not require panels and connections to provide for the lateral forced placed on a concrete liquid retaining structure as set out by AS3735 -2001. The lack of literature on window treatments in third world housing solutions and on pre-cast structural panels with openings meant the design presented has tried to provide other alternatives for light and ventilation requirements. Also, although not specifically discussed in the preliminary submission, plans to use pre-cast roof panels have been scrapped. This author felt that the erecting process and flexural demands on concrete panels would be too great and incorporation of traditional roofing would be an opportunity to increase the structures cohesion with existing buildings. These changes have been coupled with adjustments to overall dimensions to produce a more viable design option for construction with state of the art precast concrete techniques.

The selection of appropriate state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques has been based on providing the most generic solution possible. This was done to increase the flexibility of the design presented and allow for its applications in various environments. Design formulation was based on generic material properties representative of recycled aggregates and based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering . Recommendations will also be made as to other technologies that may be implemented and the most appropriate method to make this feasible.

1.0 – Introduction
1.0 – Introduction
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

10.0 Appendices

10.1 Appendix A Engineering Drawings

10.2 Appendix B Calculations

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is aimed at surveying the
state of the art modern construction
methods used in pre-cast concrete
systems to suit today’s low cost
housing needs worldwide. The
following review will provide a basis
for design formulation that will be
included as Part 2 of this submission.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation that will be included as Part 2 of this submission.

Executive Summary

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review provides a basis for design formulation that is included as Part 2 of this submission. A survey of literature has allowed determination of the current housing needs and appropriate technologies have been identified for low cost applications.

The current housing situation in developing countries is unsustainable and existing low cost housing systems are not economically viable for governments and their populations. Solutions have been proposed by various literature sources with the most common being a return to conventional building practices and utilisation of the informal construction sector. These two practices increase the link that any scheme would have with its owners and environment whilst reducing project costs.

Consideration of the above housing solutions has led to a selection of feasible precast concrete technologies being analysed. The techniques discussed are low density concretes, recycled aggregates, appropriate connections and flexible construction practices. These technologies can potentially be used together to drastically reduce the cost of building and simplify building processes to make use of informal construction sectors. The combination of technologies used would depend largely on availability of materials within the vicinity of the works. Literature resources reviewed highlight the importance of using local and readily available materials. Many recycled aggregates can be locally sourced and concerns over their material properties can be offset with other mix constituents such as crushed class or polyethylene terephthalat (PET).

This report summaries pertinent literature on state of the art technology associated with pre-cast concrete. It was found that there are many such techniques suitable for low cost housing. An ideal system would utilise recycled and local aggregates to create a low density concrete. Porosity issues associated with recycled aggregates could be offset by the introduction of crushed glass or PET aggregates. This concrete would be reinforced using short fibre reinforcement and cast in a fabric formwork. Pre-cast slab construction would allow the centralisation of skill sets, alleviating labour shortages and allow on site erection to be carried out by the informal construction sector.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

1.2 Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context

2.0 Current Housing Systems

3.0 Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

3.1 Low Density Concretes

3.2 Recycled Aggregates

3.3 Reinforcement

3.4 Connections

3.5 Construction Practices

4.0 Design Considerations

5.0 Conclusion

6.0 Project Management Statement

7.0 Glossary

8.0 References

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Application & Context

3.0 Moral Considerations

4.0 Technologies to be Used

5.0 Assumptions

6.0 Design Summary

7.0 Variables

8.0 Conclusion

9.0 References

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

The solution provided in this report is merely a proposal, although the design methodology can be applied to many different applications. It’s simple nature and locally sourced materials make it perfect to utilise the informal construction sector and reduce housing costs.

Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is providing a design
solution for the ongoing problems in
third world housing sectors. Based on
the literature review completed in Part
1, a generic design solution will be
proposed. This solution will utilise the
state of the art technologies identified
previously and explain the design
methodologies used.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is providing a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and explain the design methodologies used.

Executive Summary

This project provides a design solution for the ongoing problems in third world housing sectors. Based on the literature review completed in Part 1, a generic design solution will be proposed. This solution will utilise the state of the art technologies identified previously and the design methodologies used will be explained.

The detailed design of this structure was completed based on HB 2.2-2003 Australian Standards for civil engineering students – Structural engineering. This document is based on AS 3600 Concrete Structures and design criteria was selected for areas with conditions representative of those expected to be encountered. The structure is to be constructed from recycled aggregate pre-cast concrete panels, secured by cast in-situ footings and shallow embedded connections. Generic material properties were chosen to allow for flexible application of the system. This flexibility is vital to the system’s viability as emphasis has been placed on the use of local materials that are readily available.

Architecturally the proposed solution incorporates as many features of existing traditional housing as possible. The goal of this design was to allow the building to assimilate easily with existing infrastructure. Two distinct living modules are housed at

either end of the compound and separate enclosed courtyards provide secured outdoor

space for each unit, a feature of African and Asian architecture. Small changes in layout

also allow for configurations of multiple structures into larger compounds.

8.0 – References
Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar
Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’,
Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Amianti, M & Botaro, VR 2008,Recycling of EPS: A new methodology for production of concrete impregnated with polystyrene (CIP)’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 23-28.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008,Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007,Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Badir, YF, Kadir, MRA & Hashim, AH 2002,Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19- 23.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build One-family Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990,Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Cleaver, J (editor) 2009, Fabric Formwork Can Look Fabulous, Australian Concrete Construction, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18.

Demirboga, R & Kan, A 2009, A novel material of lightweight concrete production, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 489-495.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Eshel, Y, Schlesinger, T, Sirotin, G & Nisnevich, M 2006, Structural lightweight concrete based on coal ashes (containing undesirable radionuclides) and waste of stone quarries, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 233-241.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

Schmitz, RP 2006, ‘Fabric Formed Concrete Panel Design’, 17th Analysis and computation specialty conference, St Louis, 18-21 May 2006, Structural Engineering Institute, Virginia.

8.0 – References
Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar
Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’,
Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Amianti, M & Botaro, VR 2008,Recycling of EPS: A new methodology for production of concrete impregnated with polystyrene (CIP)’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 23-28.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008,Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007,Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Badir, YF, Kadir, MRA & Hashim, AH 2002,Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19- 23.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build One-family Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990,Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Cleaver, J (editor) 2009, Fabric Formwork Can Look Fabulous, Australian Concrete Construction, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18.

Demirboga, R & Kan, A 2009, A novel material of lightweight concrete production, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 489-495.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Eshel, Y, Schlesinger, T, Sirotin, G & Nisnevich, M 2006, Structural lightweight concrete based on coal ashes (containing undesirable radionuclides) and waste of stone quarries, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 233-241.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

Schmitz, RP 2006, ‘Fabric Formed Concrete Panel Design’, 17th Analysis and computation specialty conference, St Louis, 18-21 May 2006, Structural Engineering Institute, Virginia.

8.0 – References
Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar
Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’,
Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Amianti, M & Botaro, VR 2008,Recycling of EPS: A new methodology for production of concrete impregnated with polystyrene (CIP)’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 23-28.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008,Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007,Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Badir, YF, Kadir, MRA & Hashim, AH 2002,Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19- 23.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build One-family Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990,Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Cleaver, J (editor) 2009, Fabric Formwork Can Look Fabulous, Australian Concrete Construction, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18.

Demirboga, R & Kan, A 2009, A novel material of lightweight concrete production, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 489-495.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Eshel, Y, Schlesinger, T, Sirotin, G & Nisnevich, M 2006, Structural lightweight concrete based on coal ashes (containing undesirable radionuclides) and waste of stone quarries, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 233-241.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

Schmitz, RP 2006, ‘Fabric Formed Concrete Panel Design’, 17th Analysis and computation specialty conference, St Louis, 18-21 May 2006, Structural Engineering Institute, Virginia.

8.0 – References
Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar
Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’,
Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Amianti, M & Botaro, VR 2008,Recycling of EPS: A new methodology for production of concrete impregnated with polystyrene (CIP)’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 23-28.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008,Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007,Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Badir, YF, Kadir, MRA & Hashim, AH 2002,Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19- 23.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build One-family Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990,Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Cleaver, J (editor) 2009, Fabric Formwork Can Look Fabulous, Australian Concrete Construction, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18.

Demirboga, R & Kan, A 2009, A novel material of lightweight concrete production, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 489-495.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Eshel, Y, Schlesinger, T, Sirotin, G & Nisnevich, M 2006, Structural lightweight concrete based on coal ashes (containing undesirable radionuclides) and waste of stone quarries, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 233-241.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

Lizarralde, G & Root, D 2008, ‘The informal construction sector and the inefficiency of low cost housing markets’, Construction Management and Economics, vol. 26, pp. 103-113.

Macintosh, A & Steemers, K 2005, ‘Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study’, Building Research & Information, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 17-31.

Mathews, EH, Richards, PG, Rousseau, PG & van Wyk, SL 1994, ‘Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing’, Renewable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1231-1234.

Olotuah, AO 2002, ‘Recourse to earth for low-cost housing in Nigeria’, Building and Environment, vol. 37, pp. 123-129.

Poon, CS & Lam CS 2008, ‘The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 283-289.

Richardson, J 2003, ‘Chapter 21: Precast concrete structural members’, in Advance Concreted Technology: Processes, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Ruhnke, J & Schexnayder, CJ 2002, ‘Description of tilt up concrete wall construction’, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 103-110.

Schmitz, RP 2006, ‘Fabric Formed Concrete Panel Design’, 17th Analysis and computation specialty conference, St Louis, 18-21 May 2006, Structural Engineering Institute, Virginia.

8.0 – References
Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar
Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’,
Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Amianti, M & Botaro, VR 2008,Recycling of EPS: A new methodology for production of concrete impregnated with polystyrene (CIP)’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 23-28.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008,Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007,Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Badir, YF, Kadir, MRA & Hashim, AH 2002,Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19- 23.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build One-family Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990,Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Cleaver, J (editor) 2009, Fabric Formwork Can Look Fabulous, Australian Concrete Construction, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18.

Demirboga, R & Kan, A 2009, A novel material of lightweight concrete production, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 489-495.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Eshel, Y, Schlesinger, T, Sirotin, G & Nisnevich, M 2006, Structural lightweight concrete based on coal ashes (containing undesirable radionuclides) and waste of stone quarries, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 233-241.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

8.0 – References
Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar
Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’,
Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Abdel-Azim, A & Attia, IA 1995, ‘Making Polymer Concrete and Polymer Mortar Using Synthesized Unsaturated Polyester Resins from Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Waste’, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 688-692.

Al Awwadi Ghaib, M 2001, ‘Mechanical properties of concrete cast in fabric formworks’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 10, pp.1459-1465.

Amianti, M & Botaro, VR 2008, ‘Recycling of EPS: A new methodology for production of concrete impregnated with polystyrene (CIP)’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 30, pp. 23-28.

Arisoy, B & Wu HC 2008, ‘Performance of a fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete panel’, Construction Materials, vol. 161, no. CM4, pp. 157-162.

Arslan, H 2007, ‘Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses’, Building and Environment, vol. 42, pp. 400-406.

Badir, YF, Kadir, MRA & Hashim, AH 2002,Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia’, Journal of Architectural Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19- 23.

Balendra, T, Robinson, AJ & Wilson, JL 2008, Performance of precast concrete load bearing structures in regions of low to moderate seismicity’, Engineering Structures, vol. 30, pp. 1831-1841.

Baschieri, M 1998, A Do-it-yourself Low Cost Mass Construction Method to Build One-family Houses’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 46, nos. 1-3, pp. 179-180.

Carette, GG, Malhotra, VM & Sivasundaram, V 1990,Long-term Strength Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 12, pp. 263-270.

Carey, PJ, Gunning, PJ & Hills, CD 2009, Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide’, Waste Management, vol. 29, pp. 2722-2728.

Chan, D, Poon, CS & Lam CS 2007, ‘Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass – ASR consideration’, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 29, pp. 616-625.

Cleaver, J (editor) 2009, Fabric Formwork Can Look Fabulous, Australian Concrete Construction, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 18.

Demirboga, R & Kan, A 2009, A novel material of lightweight concrete production, Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 31, pp. 489-495.

Dheilly, RM, Laidoudi, B, Queneudec, M & Remadnia, A 2009, ‘Use of animal proteins as a foaming agent in cementitious concrete composites manufactured with recycled PET aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 23, pp. 3118-3123.

Eshel, Y, Schlesinger, T, Sirotin, G & Nisnevich, M 2006, Structural lightweight concrete based on coal ashes (containing undesirable radionuclides) and waste of stone quarries, Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 233-241.

Fleming, J, McGowan, R, Ritcher, D & Rose, J 2002, Druk White Lotus School, Northern India’, The Arup Journal, pp. 12-17.

Hamad, HM, Saad, F & Sherif, A 2008, Pre-cast Concrete Slab/Column Joints: Experiments and Design Models, Structural Engineering International, vol. 2, pp. 196-206.

Horiike, T, Hoshiro, H, Matsuoka, S, Sekine, E & Takahashi, T 2008, ‘Study on the Applicability of Short Fibre Reinforcement Concrete to Precast Concrete Slabs for Slab Track’, Quaterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 40-46.

Ikejiofor, U 1999, ‘If past traditions were building blocks’, Building and Environment, vol. 31, pp. 221-230.

7.0 – Glossary
Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)
The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)

The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR)

The reaction between alkalis and free silica within a structure that produces an alkalisilica gel that can absorb water and expand, damaging the concrete.

Architectural Darwinism

The process by which natural selection results in the most suitable design features being present in a societies traditional housing solutions.

EPS aggregate

Expanded polystyrene foam aggregate.

Fly ash

The waste ash from coal fired powerplants.

Formwork

Temporary or permanent moulds used for casting concrete.

Informal Construction Sector

That part of the construction sector whose constituents are not professional construction workers or trained in construction work.

Pre-cast

Any concrete member that is cast in forms at a place other than its final position in use.

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate, commonly found in beverage bottles or scrap textile.

PP

Polypropylene

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

Seismicity

The factor of how seismic a region is.

Shallow Embedded Connections

Connections that are cast closer to the surface than to the centreline of a slab.

Short Fibre Reinforcement

Reinforcement of concrete between of approximate length.

Third World Country

Those countries which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure.

Tilt Up Construction

Concrete members are cast horizontally adjacent to their final position and tilted into place.

7.0 – Glossary
Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)
The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)

The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR)

The reaction between alkalis and free silica within a structure that produces an alkalisilica gel that can absorb water and expand, damaging the concrete.

Architectural Darwinism

The process by which natural selection results in the most suitable design features being present in a societies traditional housing solutions.

EPS aggregate

Expanded polystyrene foam aggregate.

Fly ash

The waste ash from coal fired powerplants.

Formwork

Temporary or permanent moulds used for casting concrete.

Informal Construction Sector

That part of the construction sector whose constituents are not professional construction workers or trained in construction work.

Pre-cast

Any concrete member that is cast in forms at a place other than its final position in use.

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate, commonly found in beverage bottles or scrap textile.

PP

Polypropylene

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

Seismicity

The factor of how seismic a region is.

Shallow Embedded Connections

Connections that are cast closer to the surface than to the centreline of a slab.

Short Fibre Reinforcement

Reinforcement of concrete between of approximate length.

Third World Country

Those countries which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure.

Tilt Up Construction

Concrete members are cast horizontally adjacent to their final position and tilted into place.

7.0 – Glossary
Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)
The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT)

The process of binding carbon to solids using reactive materials to form carbonates.

Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR)

The reaction between alkalis and free silica within a structure that produces an alkalisilica gel that can absorb water and expand, damaging the concrete.

Architectural Darwinism

The process by which natural selection results in the most suitable design features being present in a societies traditional housing solutions.

EPS aggregate

Expanded polystyrene foam aggregate.

Fly ash

The waste ash from coal fired powerplants.

Formwork

Temporary or permanent moulds used for casting concrete.

Informal Construction Sector

That part of the construction sector whose constituents are not professional construction workers or trained in construction work.

Pre-cast

Any concrete member that is cast in forms at a place other than its final position in use.

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate, commonly found in beverage bottles or scrap textile.

PP

Polypropylene

PVC

Polyvinyl Chloride

Seismicity

The factor of how seismic a region is.

Shallow Embedded Connections

Connections that are cast closer to the surface than to the centreline of a slab.

Short Fibre Reinforcement

Reinforcement of concrete between of approximate length

Third World Country

Those countries which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy

or infrastructure.

Tilt Up Construction

Concrete members are cast horizontally adjacent to their final position and tilted

into place.

6.0 – Project Management Statement
The extent of analysis required to effectively survey the body of literature available
relating to pre-cast concrete technologies for this report required effective time and
resource management. The appropriate resources needed to be identified, feasible
technologies selected and then analysis of these resources was carried out. Each stage
is a time consuming processes and effective progress had to be made each week
throughout the academic year.

The extent of analysis required to effectively survey the body of literature available relating to pre-cast concrete technologies for this report required effective time and resource management. The appropriate resources needed to be identified, feasible technologies selected and then analysis of these resources was carried out. Each stage is a time consuming processes and effective progress had to be made each week throughout the academic year.

In retrospect, it is possible to pinpoint shortcomings within my structuring of the project. The majority of these shortcomings were caused by a lack of understanding of the scope of the problem being addressed. This lack of understanding made it impossible to fully comprehend the time requirements of each component. The most positive outcome from the project was the discovery of the resource offered by mentors, faculty and industry contacts. Having this support makes it easier to understand the required concepts and think logically while trying to process all data pertaining to the project. Initial meetings with my supervisor and subsequent follow up meetings were very clear and concise and left me feeling that the methodology I was following was in line with that required to produce a meaningful response to a challenging project topic.

In the early part of the project, too much time was taken in gathering resources and more decisive action was needed to select what technologies were relevant. Although I have met the goals I set out to achieve at the proposal and preliminary stages of the project, the literature review component of the project took too long to complete. If not for time constraints associated with the submission deadline, the design formulation and construction report that constituted the second component of the submission would not have been completed. This deadline forced me to work longer hours and with renewed focus to complete the report within initial time frames.

In completing this project I have learnt the importance of conducting thorough research and feasibility studies at the outset of any project. Failure to do so leaves unrealistic expectations and leads to unnecessary pressures relating to time constraints. In conjunction with these preparatory measures it has also become apparent that the scope of any project must be flexible enough to allow for any unforeseen events. I believe that this major project has aided me in my preparations for fulltime work and will be of benefit to both me and my employers. I will not only appreciate the importance of thorough preparation but will be able to use my time more efficiently to achieve project milestones and meet deadlines.

6.0 – Project Management Statement
The extent of analysis required to effectively survey the body of literature available
relating to pre-cast concrete technologies for this report required effective time and
resource management. The appropriate resources needed to be identified, feasible
technologies selected and then analysis of these resources was carried out. Each stage
is a time consuming processes and effective progress had to be made each week
throughout the academic year.

The extent of analysis required to effectively survey the body of literature available relating to pre-cast concrete technologies for this report required effective time and resource management. The appropriate resources needed to be identified, feasible technologies selected and then analysis of these resources was carried out. Each stage is a time consuming processes and effective progress had to be made each week throughout the academic year.

In retrospect, it is possible to pinpoint shortcomings within my structuring of the project. The majority of these shortcomings were caused by a lack of understanding of the scope of the problem being addressed. This lack of understanding made it impossible to fully comprehend the time requirements of each component. The most positive outcome from the project was the discovery of the resource offered by mentors, faculty and industry contacts. Having this support makes it easier to understand the required concepts and think logically while trying to process all data pertaining to the project. Initial meetings with my supervisor and subsequent follow up meetings were very clear and concise and left me feeling that the methodology I was following was in line with that required to produce a meaningful response to a challenging project topic.

In the early part of the project, too much time was taken in gathering resources and more decisive action was needed to select what technologies were relevant. Although I have met the goals I set out to achieve at the proposal and preliminary stages of the project, the literature review component of the project took too long to complete. If not for time constraints associated with the submission deadline, the design formulation and construction report that constituted the second component of the submission would not have been completed. This deadline forced me to work longer hours and with renewed focus to complete the report within initial time frames.

In completing this project I have learnt the importance of conducting thorough research and feasibility studies at the outset of any project. Failure to do so leaves unrealistic expectations and leads to unnecessary pressures relating to time constraints. In conjunction with these preparatory measures it has also become apparent that the scope of any project must be flexible enough to allow for any unforeseen events. I believe that this major project has aided me in my preparations for fulltime work and will be of benefit to both me and my employers. I will not only appreciate the importance of thorough preparation but will be able to use my time more efficiently to achieve project milestones and meet deadlines.

6.0 – Project Management Statement
The extent of analysis required to effectively survey the body of literature available
relating to pre-cast concrete technologies for this report required effective time and
resource management. The appropriate resources needed to be identified, feasible
technologies selected and then analysis of these resources was carried out. Each stage
is a time consuming processes and effective progress had to be made each week
throughout the academic year.

The extent of analysis required to effectively survey the body of literature available relating to pre-cast concrete technologies for this report required effective time and resource management. The appropriate resources needed to be identified, feasible technologies selected and then analysis of these resources was carried out. Each stage is a time consuming processes and effective progress had to be made each week throughout the academic year.

In retrospect, it is possible to pinpoint shortcomings within my structuring of the project. The majority of these shortcomings were caused by a lack of understanding of the scope of the problem being addressed. This lack of understanding made it impossible to fully comprehend the time requirements of each component. The most positive outcome from the project was the discovery of the resource offered by mentors, faculty and industry contacts. Having this support makes it easier to understand the required concepts and think logically while trying to process all data pertaining to the project. Initial meetings with my supervisor and subsequent follow up meetings were very clear and concise and left me feeling that the methodology I was following was in line with that required to produce a meaningful response to a challenging project topic.

In the early part of the project, too much time was taken in gathering resources and more decisive action was needed to select what technologies were relevant. Although I have met the goals I set out to achieve at the proposal and preliminary stages of the project, the literature review component of the project took too long to complete. If not for time constraints associated with the submission deadline, the design formulation and construction report that constituted the second component of the submission would not have been completed. This deadline forced me to work longer hours and with renewed focus to complete the report within initial time frames.

In completing this project I have learnt the importance of conducting thorough research and feasibility studies at the outset of any project. Failure to do so leaves unrealistic expectations and leads to unnecessary pressures relating to time constraints. In conjunction with these preparatory measures it has also become apparent that the scope of any project must be flexible enough to allow for any unforeseen events. I believe that this major project has aided me in my preparations for fulltime work and will be of benefit to both me and my employers. I will not only appreciate the importance of thorough preparation but will be able to use my time more efficiently to achieve project milestones and meet deadlines.

5.0 – Conclusion
The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies
for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application.
Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need
for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural
resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with
porosity and material properties.

The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application. Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with porosity and material properties.

Uche Ikejiofor explains the concept of Architectural Darwinism as the process by which indigenous buildings are derived as they are those which are most suited to the environment in which they are used. This is why any new building must take on these design features and incorporate, where possible, local materials. The emphasis placed on linking housing to its environment must be incorporated into the method of construction. Emphasis must be placed on utilising the informal sector as this minimizes cost, mitigates labour shortages and maximises the potential inhabitants’ connection with the project.

The technologies discussed in the above review are largely complementary and exhibit great scope for implementation in developing countries. Light weight concretes can be created using waste polystyrene, fly ash or animal protein derived foaming agents. The balance of aggregates used would preferably be recycled either from building demolition, waste or carbon capture systems. Any issues relating to porosity of the aggregate mix could be offset with recycled crushed glass or PET plastic. The members cast from the above mix can be formed using fabric formwork to achieve aesthetically appropriate finishes. In fixing the panels, shallow embedded connections are best utilised as under failure conditions they retain their integrity.

State of the art pre-cast concrete technologies have far reaching applications across developing countries. They have the potential to be used in conjunction with one another to produce low cost alternatives to the currently available and ultimately flawed systems. The application of even one such technology in isolation also provides the opportunity for savings in gross material use and energy consumption. In simplifying the construction requirements of the housing systems, the informal construction sector can be better utilised, alleviating the skills shortages currently driving housing costs up.

5.0 – Conclusion
The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies
for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application.
Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need
for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural
resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with
porosity and material properties.

The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application. Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with porosity and material properties.

Uche Ikejiofor explains the concept of Architectural Darwinism as the process by which indigenous buildings are derived as they are those which are most suited to the environment in which they are used. This is why any new building must take on these design features and incorporate, where possible, local materials. The emphasis placed on linking housing to its environment must be incorporated into the method of construction. Emphasis must be placed on utilising the informal sector as this minimizes cost, mitigates labour shortages and maximises the potential inhabitants’ connection with the project.

The technologies discussed in the above review are largely complementary and exhibit great scope for implementation in developing countries. Light weight concretes can be created using waste polystyrene, fly ash or animal protein derived foaming agents. The balance of aggregates used would preferably be recycled either from building demolition, waste or carbon capture systems. Any issues relating to porosity of the aggregate mix could be offset with recycled crushed glass or PET plastic. The members cast from the above mix can be formed using fabric formwork to achieve aesthetically appropriate finishes. In fixing the panels, shallow embedded connections are best utilised as under failure conditions they retain their integrity.

State of the art pre-cast concrete technologies have far reaching applications across developing countries. They have the potential to be used in conjunction with one another to produce low cost alternatives to the currently available and ultimately flawed systems. The application of even one such technology in isolation also provides the opportunity for savings in gross material use and energy consumption. In simplifying the construction requirements of the housing systems, the informal construction sector can be better utilised, alleviating the skills shortages currently driving housing costs up.

5.0 – Conclusion
The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies
for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application.
Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need
for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural
resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with
porosity and material properties.

The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application. Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with porosity and material properties.

Uche Ikejiofor explains the concept of Architectural Darwinism as the process by which indigenous buildings are derived as they are those which are most suited to the environment in which they are used. This is why any new building must take on these design features and incorporate, where possible, local materials. The emphasis placed on linking housing to its environment must be incorporated into the method of construction. Emphasis must be placed on utilising the informal sector as this minimizes cost, mitigates labour shortages and maximises the potential inhabitants’ connection with the project.

The technologies discussed in the above review are largely complementary and exhibit great scope for implementation in developing countries. Light weight concretes can be created using waste polystyrene, fly ash or animal protein derived foaming agents. The balance of aggregates used would preferably be recycled either from building demolition, waste or carbon capture systems. Any issues relating to porosity of the aggregate mix could be offset with recycled crushed glass or PET plastic. The members cast from the above mix can be formed using fabric formwork to achieve aesthetically appropriate finishes. In fixing the panels, shallow embedded connections are best utilised as under failure conditions they retain their integrity.

State of the art pre-cast concrete technologies have far reaching applications across developing countries. They have the potential to be used in conjunction with one another to produce low cost alternatives to the currently available and ultimately flawed systems. The application of even one such technology in isolation also provides the opportunity for savings in gross material use and energy consumption. In simplifying the construction requirements of the housing systems, the informal construction sector can be better utilised, alleviating the skills shortages currently driving housing costs up.

5.0 – Conclusion
The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies
for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application.
Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need
for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural
resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with
porosity and material properties.

The best solutions provided by current literature on pre-cast concrete technologies for application in third world countries are exciting in the flexibility of their application. Each technique or system has its own merit. Low density concretes reduce the need for raw materials and recycled aggregates further reduce the strain on these natural resources. Different combinations of aggregates make it possible to avoid issues with porosity and material properties.

Uche Ikejiofor explains the concept of Architectural Darwinism as the process by which indigenous buildings are derived as they are those which are most suited to the environment in which they are used. This is why any new building must take on these design features and incorporate, where possible, local materials. The emphasis placed on linking housing to its environment must be incorporated into the method of construction. Emphasis must be placed on utilising the informal sector as this minimizes cost, mitigates labour shortages and maximises the potential inhabitants’ connection with the project.

The technologies discussed in the above review are largely complementary and exhibit great scope for implementation in developing countries. Light weight concretes can be created using waste polystyrene, fly ash or animal protein derived foaming agents. The balance of aggregates used would preferably be recycled either from building

demolition, waste or carbon capture systems. Any issues relating to porosity of the

aggregate mix could be offset with recycled crushed glass or PET plastic. The members

cast from the above mix can be formed using fabric formwork to achieve aesthetically

appropriate finishes. In fixing the panels, shallow embedded connections are best utilised

as under failure conditions they retain their integrity.

4.0 – Design Considerations
In any design project the most important stage is that of research and feasibility.
The above literature review provides a solid foundation for designing a generic low cost
housing system for implementation within third world countries. It is apparent that the
most important consideration for designing any such scheme is the context in which it
will be implemented.

In any design project the most important stage is that of research and feasibility. The above literature review provides a solid foundation for designing a generic low cost housing system for implementation within third world countries. It is apparent that the most important consideration for designing any such scheme is the context in which it will be implemented.

Availability of materials must be considered in design specification, with preference given to recycled and local aggregates. These design specification must be simple and easily implemented as in many cases construction will be carried out by the informal sector to increase viability.

There are areas within the research topic that there is little to no information. Literature sources fail to provide insight into the best way to make provision for window openings within precast panels. This refers both to their structural implications and in terms of formwork configurations. To include this design feature, more specified research would be required.

4.0 – Design Considerations
In any design project the most important stage is that of research and feasibility.
The above literature review provides a solid foundation for designing a generic low cost
housing system for implementation within third world countries. It is apparent that the
most important consideration for designing any such scheme is the context in which it
will be implemented.

In any design project the most important stage is that of research and feasibility. The above literature review provides a solid foundation for designing a generic low cost housing system for implementation within third world countries. It is apparent that the most important consideration for designing any such scheme is the context in which it will be implemented.

Availability of materials must be considered in design specification, with preference given to recycled and local aggregates. These design specification must be simple and easily implemented as in many cases construction will be carried out by the informal sector to increase viability.

There are areas within the research topic that there is little to no information. Literature sources fail to provide insight into the best way to make provision for window openings within precast panels. This refers both to their structural implications and in terms of formwork configurations. To include this design feature, more specified research would be required.

4.0 – Design Considerations
In any design project the most important stage is that of research and feasibility.
The above literature review provides a solid foundation for designing a generic low cost
housing system for implementation within third world countries. It is apparent that the
most important consideration for designing any such scheme is the context in which it
will be implemented.

In any design project the most important stage is that of research and feasibility. The above literature review provides a solid foundation for designing a generic low cost housing system for implementation within third world countries. It is apparent that the most important consideration for designing any such scheme is the context in which it will be implemented.

Availability of materials must be considered in design specification, with preference given to recycled and local aggregates. These design specification must be simple and easily implemented as in many cases construction will be carried out by the informal sector to increase viability.

There are areas within the research topic that there is little to no information. Literature sources fail to provide insight into the best way to make provision for window openings within precast panels. This refers both to their structural implications and in terms of formwork configurations. To include this design feature, more specified

research would be required.

3.5 – Construction Practices
Construction practices in pre-cast concrete consist largely of the process used
to form the panels used in erection. The process of completing construction onsite,
especially when completing a tilt up building, is quite simple. The literature review
completed identified the moulding and formwork used in casting members as a point
of great interest. In countries with little to no infrastructure it is important that moulds
be simple, cost effective and easily transportable. Robert Schmitz’s work on fabric
formwork highlights the flexibility of the system and the aesthetic properties of panels
created utilising its methodology. Panels of varying size, shape and pattern can be cast.
In some cases it has also been possible to transfer patterns using pigment within the
textile as described in the Australian Concrete Construction Journal edited by Jack
Cleaver. Fabric formwork is the most recent development in pre-cast technologies
explored within this literature review. Further research should be forthcoming in the
near future and this will be required before any definitive recommendations can be made
as to its use in a low cost housing system context. It is this author’s opinion that this
future research should include the feasibility of fabric formwork being utilised as lateral
reinforcement post construction. In instances where the risk of tension cracking is high,
this may remove the necessity for auxiliary wrapping of structural members.

Construction practices in pre-cast concrete consist largely of the process used to form the panels used in erection. The process of completing construction onsite, especially when completing a tilt up building, is quite simple. The literature review completed identified the moulding and formwork used in casting members as a point of great interest. In countries with little to no infrastructure it is important that moulds be simple, cost effective and easily transportable. Robert Schmitz’s work on fabric formwork highlights the flexibility of the system and the aesthetic properties of panels created utilising its methodology. Panels of varying size, shape and pattern can be cast. In some cases it has also been possible to transfer patterns using pigment within the textile as described in the Australian Concrete Construction Journal edited by Jack Cleaver. Fabric formwork is the most recent development in pre-cast technologies explored within this literature review. Further research should be forthcoming in the near future and this will be required before any definitive recommendations can be made as to its use in a low cost housing system context. It is this author’s opinion that this future research should include the feasibility of fabric formwork being utilised as lateral reinforcement post construction. In instances where the risk of tension cracking is high, this may remove the necessity for auxiliary wrapping of structural members.

3.5 – Construction Practices
Construction practices in pre-cast concrete consist largely of the process used
to form the panels used in erection. The process of completing construction onsite,
especially when completing a tilt up building, is quite simple. The literature review
completed identified the moulding and formwork used in casting members as a point
of great interest. In countries with little to no infrastructure it is important that moulds
be simple, cost effective and easily transportable. Robert Schmitz’s work on fabric
formwork highlights the flexibility of the system and the aesthetic properties of panels
created utilising its methodology. Panels of varying size, shape and pattern can be cast.
In some cases it has also been possible to transfer patterns using pigment within the
textile as described in the Australian Concrete Construction Journal edited by Jack
Cleaver. Fabric formwork is the most recent development in pre-cast technologies
explored within this literature review. Further research should be forthcoming in the
near future and this will be required before any definitive recommendations can be made
as to its use in a low cost housing system context. It is this author’s opinion that this
future research should include the feasibility of fabric formwork being utilised as lateral
reinforcement post construction. In instances where the risk of tension cracking is high,
this may remove the necessity for auxiliary wrapping of structural members.

Construction practices in pre-cast concrete consist largely of the process used to form the panels used in erection. The process of completing construction onsite, especially when completing a tilt up building, is quite simple. The literature review completed identified the moulding and formwork used in casting members as a point of great interest. In countries with little to no infrastructure it is important that moulds be simple, cost effective and easily transportable. Robert Schmitz’s work on fabric formwork highlights the flexibility of the system and the aesthetic properties of panels created utilising its methodology. Panels of varying size, shape and pattern can be cast. In some cases it has also been possible to transfer patterns using pigment within the textile as described in the Australian Concrete Construction Journal edited by Jack Cleaver. Fabric formwork is the most recent development in pre-cast technologies explored within this literature review. Further research should be forthcoming in the near future and this will be required before any definitive recommendations can be made as to its use in a low cost housing system context. It is this author’s opinion that this future research should include the feasibility of fabric formwork being utilised as lateral reinforcement post construction. In instances where the risk of tension cracking is high, this may remove the necessity for auxiliary wrapping of structural members.

3.5 – Construction Practices
Construction practices in pre-cast concrete consist largely of the process used
to form the panels used in erection. The process of completing construction onsite,
especially when completing a tilt up building, is quite simple. The literature review
completed identified the moulding and formwork used in casting members as a point
of great interest. In countries with little to no infrastructure it is important that moulds
be simple, cost effective and easily transportable. Robert Schmitz’s work on fabric
formwork highlights the flexibility of the system and the aesthetic properties of panels
created utilising its methodology. Panels of varying size, shape and pattern can be cast.
In some cases it has also been possible to transfer patterns using pigment within the
textile as described in the Australian Concrete Construction Journal edited by Jack
Cleaver. Fabric formwork is the most recent development in pre-cast technologies
explored within this literature review. Further research should be forthcoming in the
near future and this will be required before any definitive recommendations can be made
as to its use in a low cost housing system context. It is this author’s opinion that this
future research should include the feasibility of fabric formwork being utilised as lateral
reinforcement post construction. In instances where the risk of tension cracking is high,
this may remove the necessity for auxiliary wrapping of structural members.

Construction practices in pre-cast concrete consist largely of the process used to form the panels used in erection. The process of completing construction onsite, especially when completing a tilt up building, is quite simple. The literature review completed identified the moulding and formwork used in casting members as a point of great interest. In countries with little to no infrastructure it is important that moulds be simple, cost effective and easily transportable. Robert Schmitz’s work on fabric formwork highlights the flexibility of the system and the aesthetic properties of panels created utilising its methodology. Panels of varying size, shape and pattern can be cast. In some cases it has also been possible to transfer patterns using pigment within the textile as described in the Australian Concrete Construction Journal edited by Jack Cleaver. Fabric formwork is the most recent development in pre-cast technologies explored within this literature review. Further research should be forthcoming in the near future and this will be required before any definitive recommendations can be made as to its use in a low cost housing system context. It is this author’s opinion that this future research should include the feasibility of fabric formwork being utilised as lateral reinforcement post construction. In instances where the risk of tension cracking is high,this may remove the necessity for auxiliary wrapping of structural members.

3.4 – Connections
Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in
deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of
pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members
sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable
loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature
review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the
behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined
that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels
resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall
connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure
limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for
people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections
can be seen below in figure 1.

Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections can be seen below in figure 1.

Figure 1: Wall panel to floor connection details (deep and shallow embedment connections) (Balendra et al, 2009, pp.1833)

part-1-34

In contrast implementing a system with high rigidity of connections would result in shear deflections dominating and failure being more explosive. The survey of pertinent literature on pre-cast concrete connections completed resulted in a consensus that a jointed structure with shallow embedded connections would be the most suitable solution for any pre-cast system to be deployed in areas of low to medium seismicity.

3.4 – Connections
Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in
deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of
pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members
sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable
loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature
review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the
behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined
that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels
resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall
connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure
limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for
people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections
can be seen below in figure 1.

Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections can be seen below in figure 1.

Figure 1: Wall panel to floor connection details (deep and shallow embedment connections) (Balendra et al, 2009, pp.1833)

INSERT PICTURES HERE

In contrast implementing a system with high rigidity of connections would result in shear deflections dominating and failure being more explosive. The survey of pertinent literature on pre-cast concrete connections completed resulted in a consensus that a jointed structure with shallow embedded connections would be the most suitable solution for any pre-cast system to be deployed in areas of low to medium seismicity.

3.4 – Connections
Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in
deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of
pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members
sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable
loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature
review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the
behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined
that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels
resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall
connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure
limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for
people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections
can be seen below in figure 1.

Construction joints between pre-cast slab and column elements are pivotal in deciding if a structure is jointed or monolithic in nature. The critical component of pre-cast concrete construction connections is achieving rigidity between members sufficient to resist bending moments, shear, tensile and compressive forces under variable loads (Hamad, Saad & Sherif, 2008). The most notable outcomes of the literature review conducted were the observations of Balendra, Robinson & Wilson regarding the behaviour of jointed structures in areas of low to moderate seismicity. It was determined that in the event of an earthquake, horizontal loading causes rocking of the wall panels resulting in horizontal and vertical shear forces being imposed on both the slab and wall connections. If jointed connections are used with shallow embedment then if failure limits were exceeded the building would retain its integrity at least long enough for people to be evacuated. The difference between shallow and deep embedded connections can be seen below in figure 1.

Figure 1: Wall panel to floor connection details (deep and shallow embedment connections) (Balendra et al, 2009, pp.1833)

INSERT PICTURES HERE

In contrast implementing a system with high rigidity of connections would result inshear deflections dominating and failure being more explosive. The survey of pertinent

literature on pre-cast concrete connections completed resulted in a consensus that

a jointed structure with shallow embedded connections would be the most suitable

solution for any pre-cast system to be deployed in areas of low to medium seismicity.

3.3 – Reinforcement
The most cutting edge and cost effective technologies available for reinforcement of
pre-cast concrete members involve the use of short fibre reinforcement. Predominate
literature trends suggest reinforcement is best provided by Polypropylene (PP) or
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) fibres. These fibres aid in the transfer stress within the
concrete. This form of reinforcement limits cracking caused by freeze thaw cycles
and tension cracking. Arisoy & Wu’s work likens this technique to the technologies
employed in historical building practices. The short strands used provide a bridge
within the structure similar to straw and other fibrous materials used in traditional
constructions. Concrete with reinforcement can be produced with a density as low
as 70% whilst maintaining serviceable compressive strength. The other important
consideration with PVC and PP short fibre reinforcement is that upon failure there is
no explosive capitulation of or within the structure. Reinforced structures maintain their
integrity post failure which in areas of seismic activity is of paramount importance.

The most cutting edge and cost effective technologies available for reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members involve the use of short fibre reinforcement. Predominate literature trends suggest reinforcement is best provided by Polypropylene (PP) or Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) fibres. These fibres aid in the transfer stress within the concrete. This form of reinforcement limits cracking caused by freeze thaw cycles and tension cracking. Arisoy & Wu’s work likens this technique to the technologies employed in historical building practices. The short strands used provide a bridge within the structure similar to straw and other fibrous materials used in traditional constructions. Concrete with reinforcement can be produced with a density as low as 70% whilst maintaining serviceable compressive strength. The other important consideration with PVC and PP short fibre reinforcement is that upon failure there is no explosive capitulation of or within the structure. Reinforced structures maintain their integrity post failure which in areas of seismic activity is of paramount importance.

Short fibre reinforcement provides increases in tensile strength and, importantly, in bending failure. This increase is sufficient to render this technique appropriate for precast slab and slab track applications (Horiike, Hoshiro, Matsuoka, Sekine & Takahashi, 2008). PVA fibres provide better capacity improvements than PP fibres. Conversely PP fibres provide better workability than PVA fibres. It must be noted that Arisoy et al suggests that short fibre reinforcement used in conjunction with lightweight aggregates and air entraining admixtures produce a concrete mix that exhibits strain hardening and significant increases in flexural strength.

3.3 – Reinforcement
The most cutting edge and cost effective technologies available for reinforcement of
pre-cast concrete members involve the use of short fibre reinforcement. Predominate
literature trends suggest reinforcement is best provided by Polypropylene (PP) or
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) fibres. These fibres aid in the transfer stress within the
concrete. This form of reinforcement limits cracking caused by freeze thaw cycles
and tension cracking. Arisoy & Wu’s work likens this technique to the technologies
employed in historical building practices. The short strands used provide a bridge
within the structure similar to straw and other fibrous materials used in traditional
constructions. Concrete with reinforcement can be produced with a density as low
as 70% whilst maintaining serviceable compressive strength. The other important
consideration with PVC and PP short fibre reinforcement is that upon failure there is
no explosive capitulation of or within the structure. Reinforced structures maintain their
integrity post failure which in areas of seismic activity is of paramount importance.

The most cutting edge and cost effective technologies available for reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members involve the use of short fibre reinforcement. Predominate literature trends suggest reinforcement is best provided by Polypropylene (PP) or Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) fibres. These fibres aid in the transfer stress within the concrete. This form of reinforcement limits cracking caused by freeze thaw cycles and tension cracking. Arisoy & Wu’s work likens this technique to the technologies employed in historical building practices. The short strands used provide a bridge within the structure similar to straw and other fibrous materials used in traditional constructions. Concrete with reinforcement can be produced with a density as low as 70% whilst maintaining serviceable compressive strength. The other important consideration with PVC and PP short fibre reinforcement is that upon failure there is no explosive capitulation of or within the structure. Reinforced structures maintain their integrity post failure which in areas of seismic activity is of paramount importance.

Short fibre reinforcement provides increases in tensile strength and, importantly, in bending failure. This increase is sufficient to render this technique appropriate for precast slab and slab track applications (Horiike, Hoshiro, Matsuoka, Sekine & Takahashi, 2008). PVA fibres provide better capacity improvements than PP fibres. Conversely PP fibres provide better workability than PVA fibres. It must be noted that Arisoy et al suggests that short fibre reinforcement used in conjunction with lightweight aggregates and air entraining admixtures produce a concrete mix that exhibits strain hardening and significant increases in flexural strength.

3.3 – Reinforcement
The most cutting edge and cost effective technologies available for reinforcement of
pre-cast concrete members involve the use of short fibre reinforcement. Predominate
literature trends suggest reinforcement is best provided by Polypropylene (PP) or
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) fibres. These fibres aid in the transfer stress within the
concrete. This form of reinforcement limits cracking caused by freeze thaw cycles
and tension cracking. Arisoy & Wu’s work likens this technique to the technologies
employed in historical building practices. The short strands used provide a bridge
within the structure similar to straw and other fibrous materials used in traditional
constructions. Concrete with reinforcement can be produced with a density as low
as 70% whilst maintaining serviceable compressive strength. The other important
consideration with PVC and PP short fibre reinforcement is that upon failure there is
no explosive capitulation of or within the structure. Reinforced structures maintain their
integrity post failure which in areas of seismic activity is of paramount importance.

The most cutting edge and cost effective technologies available for reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members involve the use of short fibre reinforcement. Predominate literature trends suggest reinforcement is best provided by Polypropylene (PP) or Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) fibres. These fibres aid in the transfer stress within the concrete. This form of reinforcement limits cracking caused by freeze thaw cycles and tension cracking. Arisoy & Wu’s work likens this technique to the technologies employed in historical building practices. The short strands used provide a bridge within the structure similar to straw and other fibrous materials used in traditional constructions. Concrete with reinforcement can be produced with a density as low as 70% whilst maintaining serviceable compressive strength. The other important consideration with PVC and PP short fibre reinforcement is that upon failure there is no explosive capitulation of or within the structure. Reinforced structures maintain their integrity post failure which in areas of seismic activity is of paramount importance.

Short fibre reinforcement provides increases in tensile strength and, importantly, in bending failure. This increase is sufficient to render this technique appropriate for precast slab and slab track applications (Horiike, Hoshiro, Matsuoka, Sekine & Takahashi, 2008). PVA fibres provide better capacity improvements than PP fibres. Conversely

PP fibres provide better workability than PVA fibres. It must be noted that Arisoy et al

suggests that short fibre reinforcement used in conjunction with lightweight aggregates

and air entraining admixtures produce a concrete mix that exhibits strain hardening and

significant increases in flexural strength.

3.2 – Recycled Aggregates
Recycled aggregates are often comprised of large proportions of building waste
and demolition rubble. The use of this waste is most desirable as it is suited to areas of
earthquake activity where housing needs can be severe and immediate. The wide range
of literature examined highlighted major shortcomings in the material properties of
many recycled aggregates. These deficiencies centre on the heterogeneous nature of
the constituent materials. Aggregates that contain large amounts of mortar absorb too
much water, adversely affecting mix properties. In addition to this increased porosity,
the irregular shape of aggregate particles reduces workability (Lam & Poon, 2008).
Literature sources suggest that impermeable recycled aggregates such as crushed glass
and Polyethylene terephthalat may provide a solution to these problems (PET).

Recycled aggregates are often comprised of large proportions of building waste and demolition rubble. The use of this waste is most desirable as it is suited to areas of earthquake activity where housing needs can be severe and immediate. The wide range of literature examined highlighted major shortcomings in the material properties of many recycled aggregates. These deficiencies centre on the heterogeneous nature of the constituent materials. Aggregates that contain large amounts of mortar absorb too much water, adversely affecting mix properties. In addition to this increased porosity, the irregular shape of aggregate particles reduces workability (Lam & Poon, 2008). Literature sources suggest that impermeable recycled aggregates such as crushed glass and Polyethylene terephthalat may provide a solution to these problems (PET).

Recycled aggregates are not limited to those from building or demolition sites. New progress has been made by Carey, Gunning & Hills on the use of industrial waste created as part of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Capture and Storage schemes. The large emissions of CO2 created by many industrialised processes and their contribution to global warming has necessitated the invention of Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT) to bind carbon into a solid carbonate form using natural reactive materials. This process has led to an industrial waste of low porosity that is perfect for use as aggregate in pre-cast concrete slabs, panels and members. Carey et al outlines the process by which powders are agglomerated using liquid binders to increase grain size. Testing of 28 day strength of concretes made with this aggregate at varying constituencies yielded strengths and densities comparable to standard natural aggregates.

The problems associated with the porosity and subsequent low workability of recycled aggregates are well documented and discussed above. A solution to this problem is provided by in Lam & Poon 2008 and Chan, Lam & Poon 2007. Both papers discuss the properties of recycled crushed glass aggregates and their possible application in reducing porosities of concrete mixes containing traditional recycled building rubbles and wastes. Glass aggregate is almost completely impermeable. Incorporating glass into recycled aggregates for pre-cast concrete offsets any mortar or other permeable impurities in the building rubble or waste. Problems identified with using crushed glass as an aggregate to offset porosity concerns are limited to degradation caused by Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR) within the concrete. These reactions cause the formation of alkalisilica gel that can absorb water, expand and adversely affect mix bonding. This reaction can only occur if; alkalis are present in the system, reactive aggregate is present and there is a ready supply of water. ASR reaction will occur if, and only if, all these conditions are met. Chan et al notes a decrease in tensile splitting strength due to ASR but this can be alleviated through the use of wraps and lateral reinforcement.

Polyethylene terephthalat aggregate offers a viable alternative to the use of recycled crushed glass and avoids any tension cracking problems associated with ASR reactions (Abdel-Azim & Attia, 1995). PET plastics make up a large proportion of plastic bottles sold around the world. It offers similar porosity characteristics to crushed glass, at what is often a lower density. The drawback to PET aggregates is that they must be prepared for use by depolymerisation. This process requires the material to be heated to approximately 200° C in a nitrogen rich atmosphere for up to seven hours. Depending on the level of infrastructure available in the country targeted for implementation this may preclude PET as a viable porosity offsetting aggregate.

Recycled aggregates are suited to use in developing and undeveloped countries as they reduce the demand on raw materials. This subsequently reduces cost and makes them a viable option for low cost housing applications. There are difficulties associated with porosity that have been identified across various literature sources but they can be offset by carefully designing the mix proportions used.

3.2 – Recycled Aggregates
Recycled aggregates are often comprised of large proportions of building waste
and demolition rubble. The use of this waste is most desirable as it is suited to areas of
earthquake activity where housing needs can be severe and immediate. The wide range
of literature examined highlighted major shortcomings in the material properties of
many recycled aggregates. These deficiencies centre on the heterogeneous nature of
the constituent materials. Aggregates that contain large amounts of mortar absorb too
much water, adversely affecting mix properties. In addition to this increased porosity,
the irregular shape of aggregate particles reduces workability (Lam & Poon, 2008).
Literature sources suggest that impermeable recycled aggregates such as crushed glass
and Polyethylene terephthalat may provide a solution to these problems (PET).

Recycled aggregates are often comprised of large proportions of building waste and demolition rubble. The use of this waste is most desirable as it is suited to areas of earthquake activity where housing needs can be severe and immediate. The wide range of literature examined highlighted major shortcomings in the material properties of many recycled aggregates. These deficiencies centre on the heterogeneous nature of the constituent materials. Aggregates that contain large amounts of mortar absorb too much water, adversely affecting mix properties. In addition to this increased porosity, the irregular shape of aggregate particles reduces workability (Lam & Poon, 2008). Literature sources suggest that impermeable recycled aggregates such as crushed glass and Polyethylene terephthalat may provide a solution to these problems (PET).

Recycled aggregates are not limited to those from building or demolition sites. New progress has been made by Carey, Gunning & Hills on the use of industrial waste created as part of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Capture and Storage schemes. The large emissions of CO2 created by many industrialised processes and their contribution to global warming has necessitated the invention of Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT) to bind carbon into a solid carbonate form using natural reactive materials. This process has led to an industrial waste of low porosity that is perfect for use as aggregate in pre-cast concrete slabs, panels and members. Carey et al outlines the process by which powders are agglomerated using liquid binders to increase grain size. Testing of 28 day strength of concretes made with this aggregate at varying constituencies yielded strengths and densities comparable to standard natural aggregates.

The problems associated with the porosity and subsequent low workability of recycled aggregates are well documented and discussed above. A solution to this problem is provided by in Lam & Poon 2008 and Chan, Lam & Poon 2007. Both papers discuss the properties of recycled crushed glass aggregates and their possible application in reducing porosities of concrete mixes containing traditional recycled building rubbles and wastes. Glass aggregate is almost completely impermeable. Incorporating glass into recycled aggregates for pre-cast concrete offsets any mortar or other permeable impurities in the building rubble or waste. Problems identified with using crushed glass as an aggregate to offset porosity concerns are limited to degradation caused by Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR) within the concrete. These reactions cause the formation of alkalisilica gel that can absorb water, expand and adversely affect mix bonding. This reaction can only occur if; alkalis are present in the system, reactive aggregate is present and there is a ready supply of water. ASR reaction will occur if, and only if, all these conditions are met. Chan et al notes a decrease in tensile splitting strength due to ASR but this can be alleviated through the use of wraps and lateral reinforcement.

Polyethylene terephthalat aggregate offers a viable alternative to the use of recycled crushed glass and avoids any tension cracking problems associated with ASR reactions (Abdel-Azim & Attia, 1995). PET plastics make up a large proportion of plastic bottles sold around the world. It offers similar porosity characteristics to crushed glass, at what is often a lower density. The drawback to PET aggregates is that they must be prepared for use by depolymerisation. This process requires the material to be heated to approximately 200° C in a nitrogen rich atmosphere for up to seven hours. Depending on the level of infrastructure available in the country targeted for implementation this may preclude PET as a viable porosity offsetting aggregate.

Recycled aggregates are suited to use in developing and undeveloped countries as they reduce the demand on raw materials. This subsequently reduces cost and makes them a viable option for low cost housing applications. There are difficulties associated with porosity that have been identified across various literature sources but they can be offset by carefully designing the mix proportions used.

3.2 – Recycled Aggregates
Recycled aggregates are often comprised of large proportions of building waste
and demolition rubble. The use of this waste is most desirable as it is suited to areas of
earthquake activity where housing needs can be severe and immediate. The wide range
of literature examined highlighted major shortcomings in the material properties of
many recycled aggregates. These deficiencies centre on the heterogeneous nature of
the constituent materials. Aggregates that contain large amounts of mortar absorb too
much water, adversely affecting mix properties. In addition to this increased porosity,
the irregular shape of aggregate particles reduces workability (Lam & Poon, 2008).
Literature sources suggest that impermeable recycled aggregates such as crushed glass
and Polyethylene terephthalat may provide a solution to these problems (PET).

Recycled aggregates are often comprised of large proportions of building waste and demolition rubble. The use of this waste is most desirable as it is suited to areas of earthquake activity where housing needs can be severe and immediate. The wide range of literature examined highlighted major shortcomings in the material properties of many recycled aggregates. These deficiencies centre on the heterogeneous nature of the constituent materials. Aggregates that contain large amounts of mortar absorb too much water, adversely affecting mix properties. In addition to this increased porosity, the irregular shape of aggregate particles reduces workability (Lam & Poon, 2008). Literature sources suggest that impermeable recycled aggregates such as crushed glass and Polyethylene terephthalat may provide a solution to these problems (PET).

Recycled aggregates are not limited to those from building or demolition sites. New progress has been made by Carey, Gunning & Hills on the use of industrial waste created as part of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) Capture and Storage schemes. The large emissions of CO2 created by many industrialised processes and their contribution to global warming has necessitated the invention of Accelerated Carbon Technology (ACT) to bind carbon into a solid carbonate form using natural reactive materials. This process has led to an industrial waste of low porosity that is perfect for use as aggregate in pre-cast concrete slabs, panels and members. Carey et al outlines the process by which powders are agglomerated using liquid binders to increase grain size. Testing of 28 day strength of concretes made with this aggregate at varying constituencies yielded strengths and densities comparable to standard natural aggregates.

The problems associated with the porosity and subsequent low workability of recycled aggregates are well documented and discussed above. A solution to this problem is provided by in Lam & Poon 2008 and Chan, Lam & Poon 2007. Both papers discuss the properties of recycled crushed glass aggregates and their possible application in reducing porosities of concrete mixes containing traditional recycled building rubbles and wastes. Glass aggregate is almost completely impermeable. Incorporating glass into recycled aggregates for pre-cast concrete offsets any mortar or other permeable impurities in the building rubble or waste. Problems identified with using crushed glass as an aggregate to offset porosity concerns are limited to degradation caused by Alumina Silica Reaction (ASR) within the concrete. These reactions cause the formation of alkalisilica gel that can absorb water, expand and adversely affect mix bonding. This reaction can only occur if; alkalis are present in the system, reactive aggregate is present and there is a ready supply of water. ASR reaction will occur if, and only if, all these conditions are met. Chan et al notes a decrease in tensile splitting strength due to ASR but this can be alleviated through the use of wraps and lateral reinforcement.

Polyethylene terephthalat aggregate offers a viable alternative to the use of recycled crushed glass and avoids any tension cracking problems associated with ASR reactions (Abdel-Azim & Attia, 1995). PET plastics make up a large proportion of plastic bottles sold around the world. It offers similar porosity characteristics to crushed glass, at what is often a lower density. The drawback to PET aggregates is that they must be prepared for use by depolymerisation. This process requires the material to be heated to approximately 200° C in a nitrogen rich atmosphere for up to seven hours. Depending on the level of infrastructure available in the country targeted for implementation this may preclude PET as a viable porosity offsetting aggregate.

Recycled aggregates are suited to use in developing and undeveloped countries as

they reduce the demand on raw materials. This subsequently reduces cost and makes

them a viable option for low cost housing applications. There are difficulties associated

with porosity that have been identified across various literature sources but they can be

offset by carefully designing the mix proportions used.

3.1 – Low Density Concretes
The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials
required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also
extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density
concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use
in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the
systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes
and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also
debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

Demirboga and Kan’s 2009 work on concrete composites suggests that expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) provide an unconventional method for reducing concrete density. Traditionally, EPS aggregate has not been used in structural concrete due to low strength but the literature suggests that thermal modification can dramatically increase the strength of concrete produced with these aggregates. This process requires the waste foam to be exposed to 130 ° C temperatures for 15 minutes. Testing carried out by Demirboga et al used EPS aggregate replacement rates ranging between 0% to 100% at 25% intervals. The results of testing on EPS aggregate concrete have shown that even at high levels of replacement it is still has sufficient strength to be utilised in semi-structural members. Compressive strengths of 12.58Mpa have been achieved for 100% replacement (Demirboga & Kan, 2009). The test results for various mix compositions can be seen below with mix type C1 containing the highest proportion of modified expanded polystyrene foams.

Table 1: Density, UPV, compressive and splitting tensile strength of MEPS concrete (from Demirbog et al, 2009, pp.491)

Density, UPV

Even less conventional than polystyrene aggregates are animal protein foaming agents. These admixtures are less expensive than traditional chemical agents whose cost and limited availability preclude them from use in developing countries. Effectively dried, atomised cows’ blood, the use of atomised bovine haemoglobin is explored by Dheilly, Laidoudi, Queneudec & Remadnia’s paper from Construction and Building Materials journal. The positives associated with such an agent are not only in aggregate savings due to low density but also in the increase of flowability and workability they exhibit. Haemoglobin to cement ratios (H/C) up to 2% have been trialled with density reductions of approximately 30% (Dheilly et al, 2009).

Table 2: Evolution of bulk density(kg/m3)of the composites as a function of H/C and mixing time used after haemoglobin introduction as regard of the bulk density of a mortar without haemoglobin (1865.39 kg/m3)(Dheilly et al, 2009, pp.3121)

part-1-31b

To maintain concrete strength, mixing must be limited to one minute. Any mixing exceeding one minute in duration results in a dramatic loss in concrete strength as can be seen in Table 2. If one minute of mixing is carried out with a 2% haemoglobin to cement ratio a mix density of 1421kg/m3 with compressive strength of 20MPa can be acheived. This method of producing low density concrete is ideal for third world countries as it decreases the amount of raw materials consumed and utilises food production wastes in the form of animal blood.

The third state of the art method for producing low density concrete with potential applications in third world countries is high volume fly ash mixtures. Eshel, Nisnevich, Schlesinger & Sirotin document testing results with concrete strength of 19MPa corresponding to 1450kg/m3 density. Fly ash is generated as a result of coal fuelled power plants, which represent the majority of power production in many third world countries. Withstanding the obvious benefits of fly ash based concretes, there have been questions raised in the past regarding its long term strength and subsequent safety for structural members. The work of Carette, Malhorta & Sivasundaram shows the long term strength of concrete prepared with high volumes of fly ash. Their work removes any doubt about the serviceability of fly ash aggregate concrete with no thermal cracking evident and negligible chloride ion permeability exhibited under long term loading.

All low density concretes have increased thermal efficiency and many of the technologies above have benefits in relation to recycling and reuse. Foaming solutions however provide increased workability which is desirable as simple construction techniques are a necessary requirement to utilise the informal construction sector. The literature surveyed identified three possible techniques for producing low density concretes in developing countries. These sources also provided evidence advocating the use of these concretes in structural applications. Of the technologies reviewed the most promising development in pre-cast concrete manufacture must be that of animal protein admixtures. This simple and accessible option for producing a foaming agent provides a recycling and reuse benefit in conjunction with improvements in constructability.

3.1 – Low Density Concretes
The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials
required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also
extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density
concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use
in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the
systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes
and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also
debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

Demirboga and Kan’s 2009 work on concrete composites suggests that expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) provide an unconventional method for reducing concrete density. Traditionally, EPS aggregate has not been used in structural concrete due to low strength but the literature suggests that thermal modification can dramatically increase the strength of concrete produced with these aggregates. This process requires the waste foam to be exposed to 130 ° C temperatures for 15 minutes. Testing carried out by Demirboga et al used EPS aggregate replacement rates ranging between 0% to 100% at 25% intervals. The results of testing on EPS aggregate concrete have shown that even at high levels of replacement it is still has sufficient strength to be utilised in semi-structural members. Compressive strengths of 12.58Mpa have been achieved for 100% replacement (Demirboga & Kan, 2009). The test results for various mix compositions can be seen below with mix type C1 containing the highest proportion of modified expanded polystyrene foams.

Table 1: Density, UPV, compressive and splitting tensile strength of MEPS concrete (from Demirbog et al, 2009, pp.491)

INSERT TABLE HERE

Even less conventional than polystyrene aggregates are animal protein foaming agents. These admixtures are less expensive than traditional chemical agents whose cost and limited availability preclude them from use in developing countries. Effectively dried, atomised cows’ blood, the use of atomised bovine haemoglobin is explored by Dheilly, Laidoudi, Queneudec & Remadnia’s paper from Construction and Building Materials journal. The positives associated with such an agent are not only in aggregate savings due to low density but also in the increase of flowability and workability they exhibit. Haemoglobin to cement ratios (H/C) up to 2% have been trialled with density reductions of approximately 30% (Dheilly et al, 2009).

Table 2: Evolution of bulk density(kg/m3)of the composites as a function of H/C and mixing time used after haemoglobin introduction as regard of the bulk density of a mortar without haemoglobin (1865.39 kg/m3)(Dheilly et al, 2009, pp.3121)

INSERT TABLE 2

To maintain concrete strength, mixing must be limited to one minute. Any mixing exceeding one minute in duration results in a dramatic loss in concrete strength as can be seen in Table 2. If one minute of mixing is carried out with a 2% haemoglobin to cement ratio a mix density of 1421kg/m3 with compressive strength of 20MPa can be acheived. This method of producing low density concrete is ideal for third world countries as it decreases the amount of raw materials consumed and utilises food production wastes in the form of animal blood.

The third state of the art method for producing low density concrete with potential applications in third world countries is high volume fly ash mixtures. Eshel, Nisnevich, Schlesinger & Sirotin document testing results with concrete strength of 19MPa corresponding to 1450kg/m3 density. Fly ash is generated as a result of coal fuelled power plants, which represent the majority of power production in many third world countries. Withstanding the obvious benefits of fly ash based concretes, there have been questions raised in the past regarding its long term strength and subsequent safety for structural members. The work of Carette, Malhorta & Sivasundaram shows the long term strength of concrete prepared with high volumes of fly ash. Their work removes any doubt about the serviceability of fly ash aggregate concrete with no thermal cracking evident and negligible chloride ion permeability exhibited under long term loading.

All low density concretes have increased thermal efficiency and many of the technologies above have benefits in relation to recycling and reuse. Foaming solutions however provide increased workability which is desirable as simple construction techniques are a necessary requirement to utilise the informal construction sector. The literature surveyed identified three possible techniques for producing low density concretes in developing countries. These sources also provided evidence advocating the use of these concretes in structural applications. Of the technologies reviewed the most promising development in pre-cast concrete manufacture must be that of animal protein admixtures. This simple and accessible option for producing a foaming agent provides a recycling and reuse benefit in conjunction with improvements in constructability.

3.1 – Low Density Concretes
The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials
required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also
extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density
concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use
in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the
systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes
and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also
debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

The advent of low density concrete has drastically decreased the raw materials required to cast concrete members. Insulating properties of these members are also extremely high due to the increase in void ratio. The mode by which this low density concrete is produced differs between literature sources. Those modes appropriate for use in developing countries are limited to low cost solutions. Of the literature surveyed the systems selected for further review were those utilising polystyrene aggregates, fly ashes and animal protein air entraining admixtures. It is these same literature sources that also debate the suitability of such low density concretes for structural applications.

Demirboga and Kan’s 2009 work on concrete composites suggests that expanded polystyrene foams (EPS) provide an unconventional method for reducing concrete density. Traditionally, EPS aggregate has not been used in structural concrete due to low strength but the literature suggests that thermal modification can dramatically increase the strength of concrete produced with these aggregates. This process requires the waste foam to be exposed to 130 ° C temperatures for 15 minutes. Testing carried out by Demirboga et al used EPS aggregate replacement rates ranging between 0% to 100% at 25% intervals. The results of testing on EPS aggregate concrete have shown that even at high levels of replacement it is still has sufficient strength to be utilised in semi-structural members. Compressive strengths of 12.58Mpa have been achieved for 100% replacement (Demirboga & Kan, 2009). The test results for various mix compositions can be seen below with mix type C1 containing the highest proportion of modified expanded polystyrene foams.

Table 1: Density, UPV, compressive and splitting tensile strength of MEPS concrete (from Demirbog et al, 2009, pp.491)

INSERT TABLE HERE

Even less conventional than polystyrene aggregates are animal protein foaming agents. These admixtures are less expensive than traditional chemical agents whose cost and limited availability preclude them from use in developing countries. Effectively dried, atomised cows’ blood, the use of atomised bovine haemoglobin is explored by Dheilly, Laidoudi, Queneudec & Remadnia’s paper from Construction and Building Materials journal. The positives associated with such an agent are not only in aggregate savings due to low density but also in the increase of flowability and workability they exhibit. Haemoglobin to cement ratios (H/C) up to 2% have been trialled with density reductions of approximately 30% (Dheilly et al, 2009).

Table 2: Evolution of bulk density(kg/m3)of the composites as a function of H/C and mixing time used after haemoglobin introduction as regard of the bulk density of a mortar without haemoglobin (1865.39 kg/m3)(Dheilly et al, 2009, pp.3121)

INSERT TABLE 2

To maintain concrete strength, mixing must be limited to one minute. Any mixing exceeding one minute in duration results in a dramatic loss in concrete strength as can be seen in Table 2. If one minute of mixing is carried out with a 2% haemoglobin to cement ratio a mix density of 1421kg/m3 with compressive strength of 20MPa can be acheived. This method of producing low density concrete is ideal for third world countries as it decreases the amount of raw materials consumed and utilises food production wastes in the form of animal blood.

The third state of the art method for producing low density concrete with potential applications in third world countries is high volume fly ash mixtures. Eshel, Nisnevich, Schlesinger & Sirotin document testing results with concrete strength of 19MPa corresponding to 1450kg/m3 density. Fly ash is generated as a result of coal fuelled power plants, which represent the majority of power production in many third world countries. Withstanding the obvious benefits of fly ash based concretes, there have been questions raised in the past regarding its long term strength and subsequent safety for structural members. The work of Carette, Malhorta & Sivasundaram shows the long term strength of concrete prepared with high volumes of fly ash. Their work removes any doubt about the serviceability of fly ash aggregate concrete with no thermal cracking evident and negligible chloride ion permeability exhibited under long term loading.

All low density concretes have increased thermal efficiency and many of the technologies above have benefits in relation to recycling and reuse. Foaming solutions however provide increased workability which is desirable as simple construction techniques are a necessary requirement to utilise the informal construction sector. The literature surveyed identified three possible techniques for producing low density concretes in developing countries. These sources also provided evidence advocating the use of these concretes in structural applications. Of the technologies reviewed the most promising development in pre-cast concrete manufacture must be that of animal protein admixtures. This simple and accessible option for producing a foaming agent provides a recycling and reuse benefit in conjunction with improvements in constructability.

3.0 – Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Any technology to be applied to low cost housing must satisfy the requirements
of the market it is targeting. The above review of literature on existing housing systems
provided the basis for selecting pre-cast concrete technologies to survey. Technologies
identified provide savings in gross material consumption and simplify the construction
process. In many instances they would also allow for the use of local materials and each
can be applied in a manner sensitive to existing traditional urbanised environments.

Any technology to be applied to low cost housing must satisfy the requirements of the market it is targeting. The above review of literature on existing housing systems provided the basis for selecting pre-cast concrete technologies to survey. Technologies identified provide savings in gross material consumption and simplify the construction process. In many instances they would also allow for the use of local materials and each can be applied in a manner sensitive to existing traditional urbanised environments.

3.0 – Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Any technology to be applied to low cost housing must satisfy the requirements
of the market it is targeting. The above review of literature on existing housing systems
provided the basis for selecting pre-cast concrete technologies to survey. Technologies
identified provide savings in gross material consumption and simplify the construction
process. In many instances they would also allow for the use of local materials and each
can be applied in a manner sensitive to existing traditional urbanised environments.

Any technology to be applied to low cost housing must satisfy the requirements of the market it is targeting. The above review of literature on existing housing systems provided the basis for selecting pre-cast concrete technologies to survey. Technologies identified provide savings in gross material consumption and simplify the construction process. In many instances they would also allow for the use of local materials and each can be applied in a manner sensitive to existing traditional urbanised environments.

3.0 – Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
2.0 – Current Housing Systems
The prevailing view throughout almost all the literature analysed is that current low
cost housing systems are unsustainable. Lizarralde et al. provides anecdotal evidence
of government housing being purchased by organised crime due to its financial
inaccessibility. This perception of existing low cost housing as out of reach from its target
populace is widespread throughout the literature surveyed. The other problems identified
with current low cost housing include thermal efficiency (Matthews, Richards, Rousseau
& van Wyk, 1994) and lack of context among traditional structures (Ikejiofor, 1999).

The prevailing view throughout almost all the literature analysed is that current low cost housing systems are unsustainable. Lizarralde et al. provides anecdotal evidence of government housing being purchased by organised crime due to its financial inaccessibility. This perception of existing low cost housing as out of reach from its target populace is widespread throughout the literature surveyed. The other problems identified with current low cost housing include thermal efficiency (Matthews, Richards, Rousseau & van Wyk, 1994) and lack of context among traditional structures (Ikejiofor, 1999).

Contrast exists within the body of literature examined, in that; each source provides a different solution to the viability problems encountered by low cost housing schemes. Uche Ikejiofor of the Nigerian Federal Ministry for Works and Housing, highlights the importance of utilising existing architectural designs and materials to increase the connection between people, structure and environment. This stance makes financial sense too as these materials would be in greater abundance and require less transportation to site. Recommendations are made by Ikejiofor regarding multiple family units being housed within one dwelling and central walled courtyards to provide a secured outdoor space. These are both characteristics of traditional Nigerian housing. The need for housing in Nigeria is estimated at 200,000 new units per year just to cope with the population growth in urban areas (Ikejiofor, 1999).

The second avenue for improvement of low cost housing systems is through the informal construction sector. Lizarralde & Root outline the importance of utilising the community as a labour resource in increasing efficiency of housing erection. In many third world countries skill shortages mean that supply of housing infrastructure is much lower than demand. This is the reason for high prices and the unaffordable nature of housing in these areas. The solution provided by Lizarralde et al is to enlist prospective home owners as labour in constructing their own homes. This form of informal construction industry alleviates labour shortages and means that supply is much closer aligned with demand. In doing this, emphasis must be placed on centralising skill sets and simplifying housing designs for easy construction.

Literature on low cost housing schemes provides a general consensus that current systems are too expensive. They differ however in their solution to this problem. All solutions emphasise the importance of increasing the connection of the structures to the surrounding environment. This may be done through utilising informal construction sectors and/or traditional designs. Any future schemes or designs must incorporate these ideas if they hope to be successful in addressing the growing demand for new housing throughout developing nations.

2.0 – Current Housing Systems
The prevailing view throughout almost all the literature analysed is that current low
cost housing systems are unsustainable. Lizarralde et al. provides anecdotal evidence
of government housing being purchased by organised crime due to its financial
inaccessibility. This perception of existing low cost housing as out of reach from its target
populace is widespread throughout the literature surveyed. The other problems identified
with current low cost housing include thermal efficiency (Matthews, Richards, Rousseau
& van Wyk, 1994) and lack of context among traditional structures (Ikejiofor, 1999).

The prevailing view throughout almost all the literature analysed is that current low cost housing systems are unsustainable. Lizarralde et al. provides anecdotal evidence of government housing being purchased by organised crime due to its financial inaccessibility. This perception of existing low cost housing as out of reach from its target populace is widespread throughout the literature surveyed. The other problems identified with current low cost housing include thermal efficiency (Matthews, Richards, Rousseau & van Wyk, 1994) and lack of context among traditional structures (Ikejiofor, 1999).

Contrast exists within the body of literature examined, in that; each source provides a different solution to the viability problems encountered by low cost housing schemes. Uche Ikejiofor of the Nigerian Federal Ministry for Works and Housing, highlights the importance of utilising existing architectural designs and materials to increase the connection between people, structure and environment. This stance makes financial sense too as these materials would be in greater abundance and require less transportation to site. Recommendations are made by Ikejiofor regarding multiple family units being housed within one dwelling and central walled courtyards to provide a secured outdoor space. These are both characteristics of traditional Nigerian housing. The need for housing in Nigeria is estimated at 200,000 new units per year just to cope with the population growth in urban areas (Ikejiofor, 1999).

The second avenue for improvement of low cost housing systems is through the informal construction sector. Lizarralde & Root outline the importance of utilising the community as a labour resource in increasing efficiency of housing erection. In many third world countries skill shortages mean that supply of housing infrastructure is much lower than demand. This is the reason for high prices and the unaffordable nature of housing in these areas. The solution provided by Lizarralde et al is to enlist prospective home owners as labour in constructing their own homes. This form of informal construction industry alleviates labour shortages and means that supply is much closer aligned with demand. In doing this, emphasis must be placed on centralising skill sets and simplifying housing designs for easy construction.

Literature on low cost housing schemes provides a general consensus that current systems are too expensive. They differ however in their solution to this problem. All solutions emphasise the importance of increasing the connection of the structures to the surrounding environment. This may be done through utilising informal construction sectors and/or traditional designs. Any future schemes or designs must incorporate these ideas if they hope to be successful in addressing the growing demand for new housing throughout developing nations.

2.0 – Current Housing Systems
The prevailing view throughout almost all the literature analysed is that current low
cost housing systems are unsustainable. Lizarralde et al. provides anecdotal evidence
of government housing being purchased by organised crime due to its financial
inaccessibility. This perception of existing low cost housing as out of reach from its target
populace is widespread throughout the literature surveyed. The other problems identified
with current low cost housing include thermal efficiency (Matthews, Richards, Rousseau
& van Wyk, 1994) and lack of context among traditional structures (Ikejiofor, 1999).

The prevailing view throughout almost all the literature analysed is that current low cost housing systems are unsustainable. Lizarralde et al. provides anecdotal evidence of government housing being purchased by organised crime due to its financial inaccessibility. This perception of existing low cost housing as out of reach from its target populace is widespread throughout the literature surveyed. The other problems identified with current low cost housing include thermal efficiency (Matthews, Richards, Rousseau & van Wyk, 1994) and lack of context among traditional structures (Ikejiofor, 1999).

Contrast exists within the body of literature examined, in that; each source provides a different solution to the viability problems encountered by low cost housing schemes. Uche Ikejiofor of the Nigerian Federal Ministry for Works and Housing, highlights the importance of utilising existing architectural designs and materials to increase the connection between people, structure and environment. This stance makes financial sense too as these materials would be in greater abundance and require less transportation to site. Recommendations are made by Ikejiofor regarding multiple family units being housed within one dwelling and central walled courtyards to provide a secured outdoor space. These are both characteristics of traditional Nigerian housing. The need for housing in Nigeria is estimated at 200,000 new units per year just to cope with the population growth in urban areas (Ikejiofor, 1999).

The second avenue for improvement of low cost housing systems is through the informal construction sector. Lizarralde & Root outline the importance of utilising the community as a labour resource in increasing efficiency of housing erection. In many third world countries skill shortages mean that supply of housing infrastructure is much lower than demand. This is the reason for high prices and the unaffordable nature of housing in these areas. The solution provided by Lizarralde et al is to enlist prospective home owners as labour in constructing their own homes. This form of informal construction industry alleviates labour shortages and means that supply is much closer aligned with demand. In doing this, emphasis must be placed on centralising skill sets and simplifying housing designs for easy construction. Literature on low cost housing schemes provides a general consensus that current systems are too expensive. They differ however in their solution to this problem. All solutions emphasise the importance of increasing the connection of the structures to the surrounding environment. This may be done through utilising informal construction sectors and/or traditional designs. Any future schemes or designs must incorporate these ideas if they hope to be successful in addressing the growing demand for new housing throughout developing nations.

1.2 – Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context
Current pre-cast concrete technologies provide an opportunity to solve the costing
problems associated with the low cost housing sector in many different environments.
This literature review has identified the relevant techniques for use in third world
countries. These techniques consist of; low density concretes, recycled aggregates, short
fibre reinforcements, shallow embedded connections, tilt up construction and fabric
formwork.
These technologies have been selected because they are applicable to construction
to be carried out by the informal sector of the industry, they can be adapted to provide
housing that assimilates with traditional housing structures and provide cost reduction
opportunities for low cost housing construction. The relevant literature specific to
each of these technologies will be analysed and cited in the following body of work.

Current pre-cast concrete technologies provide an opportunity to solve the costing problems associated with the low cost housing sector in many different environments. This literature review has identified the relevant techniques for use in third world countries. These techniques consist of; low density concretes, recycled aggregates, short fibre reinforcements, shallow embedded connections, tilt up construction and fabric formwork.

These technologies have been selected because they are applicable to construction to be carried out by the informal sector of the industry, they can be adapted to provide housing that assimilates with traditional housing structures and provide cost reduction opportunities for low cost housing construction. The relevant literature specific to each of these technologies will be analysed and cited in the following body of work.

1.2 – Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context
Current pre-cast concrete technologies provide an opportunity to solve the costing
problems associated with the low cost housing sector in many different environments.
This literature review has identified the relevant techniques for use in third world
countries. These techniques consist of; low density concretes, recycled aggregates, short
fibre reinforcements, shallow embedded connections, tilt up construction and fabric
formwork.
These technologies have been selected because they are applicable to construction
to be carried out by the informal sector of the industry, they can be adapted to provide
housing that assimilates with traditional housing structures and provide cost reduction
opportunities for low cost housing construction. The relevant literature specific to
each of these technologies will be analysed and cited in the following body of work.

Current pre-cast concrete technologies provide an opportunity to solve the costing problems associated with the low cost housing sector in many different environments. This literature review has identified the relevant techniques for use in third world countries. These techniques consist of; low density concretes, recycled aggregates, short fibre reinforcements, shallow embedded connections, tilt up construction and fabric formwork.

These technologies have been selected because they are applicable to construction to be carried out by the informal sector of the industry, they can be adapted to provide housing that assimilates with traditional housing structures and provide cost reduction opportunities for low cost housing construction. The relevant literature specific to each of these technologies will be analysed and cited in the following body of work.

1.2 Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context
1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.1 – Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies
Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final
position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially
within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete
can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete
members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural
applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies,
quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs
are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs
dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in
days not weeks.
Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the
perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of
pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less
skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained
in the slab casting techniques.

Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. Pre-cast concrete is concrete that has been cast in a place other than its final position. It is a movable material that can be cast either on or off site, potentially within a factory. In cases where construction is carried out on site pre-cast concrete can alleviate issues associated with site access. The popularity of pre-cast concrete members over the last century has seen it used in numerous structural and architectural applications. The reason for this widespread use is that it offers increased accuracies, quality finishes, fast construction and low maintenance (Richardson, 2003). Labour costs are a major component of any project budget and pre-cast panels can reduce these costs dramatically. Utilising tilt up construction techniques, a building can be completed in days not weeks.

Pre-cast concrete offers tested solutions for specific geometries and provides the perfect solution to skill shortages in the construction industry. A major component of pre-cast concretes appeal was that panels and members could be cast off site and a less skilled crew used for onsite erection. Only one group of workers needed to be trained in the slab casting techniques.

The new trend with pre-cast concrete members is to use admixtures and different aggregates to create lower density concretes. These concretes use much fewer materials and have high insulating properties due to their comparatively high void ratio. Advances in low density pre-cast concrete panels have centred on non-structural members but work is now being done to create low density structural members with the aid of reinforcement. This is a revolutionary step in the design of pre-cast concrete.

Advances in technologies are not limited to low density concretes. The provision for the use of recycled aggregates in precast construction and flexible construction techniques are now being explored. It is these technologies, along with low density concretes, that constitute the state of the art techniques discussed in the body of this report.

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’ capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide an immediate response.

Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.

Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing. Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used at decreased volumes.

It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’ capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide an immediate response.

Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.

Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing. Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used at decreased volumes.

It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

1.0 – Introduction
Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages
of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations
all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within
third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing
in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately
located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates
in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’
capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save
with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated
by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide
an immediate response.
Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have
traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These
systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income
constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords
and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs
have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing
methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection
between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying
the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.
Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the
informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing.
Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that
successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction
and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for
the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent
advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used
at decreased volumes.
5
part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
19878230 Christopher James Constantine
It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art
pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution
for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this
exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future
low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on
the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast
concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing
when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Food and shelter are the basic requirements to sustain life. As such, shortages of low cost housing are becoming a major focus for governments and aid organisations all around the world. An increased need for low cost housing specifically exists within third world countries. These countries are those which are underdeveloped or developing in terms of their economy or infrastructure. Third world countries are predominately located within Asia, Africa and Latin America. The economic and political climates in these countries are largely unstable and this severely limits both the governments’ capacities to invest in housing infrastructure and the ability of households to save with the view to buying a house. In recent times, this has been further accentuated by natural disasters in such areas and a lack of resources or planning to provide an immediate response.

Current housing systems within underdeveloped and developing nations have traditionally used the formal building sector for construction (Ikejifor, 1999). These systems have been largely unaffordable for the target demographic of low income constituents and have regularly been purchased by wealthier individuals, drug lords and prostitution rings (Lizarralde & Root, 2008). In recent times housing programs have started to look towards the informal construction sector and traditional housing methods to solve these problems. Traditional housing provides a greater connection between house and environment but is also the most effective solution for satisfying the occupant’s lifestyle requirements and sociological needs.

Pre-cast concrete provides an opportunity to streamline construction within the informal sector and incorporate traditional housing requirements into low cost housing. Concrete can be made using local aggregates and shaped to create housing that successfully integrates with established dwellings. Increasing the speed of construction and decreasing the costs of materials are pivotal to providing affordable housing for the homeless. Pre-cast concrete structures have always been quick to install but recent advances in technology have meant that a wide variety of aggregates can be used at decreased volumes.

5

part i Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

19878230 Christopher James Constantine

It is the purpose of this project to survey pertinent literature on state of the art

pre-cast concrete techniques that have a possible application in providing a solution

for housing shortages. Existing housing systems will be explored and with this

exploration as a context, appropriate technologies identified for application in future

low cost housing systems. The technologies identified by this literature review centre on

the use of low density concretes, recycled aggregates and the reinforcement of pre-cast

concrete members. These technologies have exciting applications for low cost housing

when teamed with appropriate connections and construction practices.

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is aimed at surveying the
state of the art modern construction
methods used in pre-cast concrete
systems to suit today’s low cost
housing needs worldwide. The
following review will provide a basis
for design formulation that will be
included as Part 2 of this submission.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation that will be included as Part 2 of this submission.

Executive Summary

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review provides a basis for design formulation that is included as Part 2 of this submission. A survey of literature has allowed determination of the current housing needs and appropriate technologies have been identified for low cost applications.

The current housing situation in developing countries is unsustainable and existing low cost housing systems are not economically viable for governments and their populations. Solutions have been proposed by various literature sources with the most common being a return to conventional building practices and utilisation of the informal construction sector. These two practices increase the link that any scheme would have with its owners and environment whilst reducing project costs.

Consideration of the above housing solutions has led to a selection of feasible precast concrete technologies being analysed. The techniques discussed are low density concretes, recycled aggregates, appropriate connections and flexible construction practices. These technologies can potentially be used together to drastically reduce the cost of building and simplify building processes to make use of informal construction sectors. The combination of technologies used would depend largely on availability of materials within the vicinity of the works. Literature resources reviewed highlight the importance of using local and readily available materials. Many recycled aggregates can be locally sourced and concerns over their material properties can be offset with other mix constituents such as crushed class or polyethylene terephthalat (PET).

This report summaries pertinent literature on state of the art technology associated with pre-cast concrete. It was found that there are many such techniques suitable for low cost housing. An ideal system would utilise recycled and local aggregates to create a low density concrete. Porosity issues associated with recycled aggregates could be offset by the introduction of crushed glass or PET aggregates. This concrete would be reinforced using short fibre reinforcement and cast in a fabric formwork. Pre-cast slab construction would allow the centralisation of skill sets, alleviating labour shortages and allow on site erection to be carried out by the informal construction sector.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

1.2 Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context

2.0 Current Housing Systems

3.0 Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

3.1 Low Density Concretes

3.2 Recycled Aggregates

3.3 Reinforcement

3.4 Connections

3.5 Construction Practices

4.0 Design Considerations

5.0 Conclusion

6.0 Project Management Statement

7.0 Glossary

8.0 References

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is aimed at surveying the
state of the art modern construction
methods used in pre-cast concrete
systems to suit today’s low cost
housing needs worldwide. The
following review will provide a basis
for design formulation that will be
included as Part 2 of this submission.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation that will be included as Part 2 of this submission.

Executive Summary

Part 2

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Part 2

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Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Christopher James Constantine
This project is aimed at surveying the
state of the art modern construction
methods used in pre-cast concrete
systems to suit today’s low cost
housing needs worldwide. The
following review will provide a basis
for design formulation that will be
included as Part 2 of this submission.

Christopher James Constantine

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation that will be included as Part 2 of this submission.

Executive Summary

This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review provides a basis for design formulation that is included as Part 2 of this submission. A survey of literature has allowed determination of the current housing needs and appropriate technologies have been identified for low cost applications.

The current housing situation in developing countries is unsustainable and existing low cost housing systems are not economically viable for governments and their populations. Solutions have been proposed by various literature sources with the most common being a return to conventional building practices and utilisation of the informal construction sector. These two practices increase the link that any scheme would have with its owners and environment whilst reducing project costs.

Consideration of the above housing solutions has led to a selection of feasible precast concrete technologies being analysed. The techniques discussed are low density concretes, recycled aggregates, appropriate connections and flexible construction practices. These technologies can potentially be used together to drastically reduce the cost of building and simplify building processes to make use of informal construction sectors. The combination of technologies used would depend largely on availability of materials within the vicinity of the works. Literature resources reviewed highlight the importance of using local and readily available materials. Many recycled aggregates can be locally sourced and concerns over their material properties can be offset with other mix constituents such as crushed class or polyethylene terephthalat (PET).

This report summaries pertinent literature on state of the art technology associated with pre-cast concrete. It was found that there are many such techniques suitable for low cost housing. An ideal system would utilise recycled and local aggregates to create a low density concrete. Porosity issues associated with recycled aggregates could be offset by the introduction of crushed glass or PET aggregates. This concrete would be reinforced using short fibre reinforcement and cast in a fabric formwork. Pre-cast slab construction would allow the centralisation of skill sets, alleviating labour shortages and allow on site erection to be carried out by the informal construction sector.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

1.2 Current Technologies and Their Potential Use in Context

2.0 Current Housing Systems

3.0 Pre-cast Concrete Technologies

3.1 Low Density Concretes

3.2 Recycled Aggregates

3.3 Reinforcement

3.4 Connections

3.5 Construction Practices

4.0 Design Considerations

5.0 Conclusion

6.0 Project Management Statement

7.0 Glossary

8.0 References

Part 1

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Part 1
The Report – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art

Read the report online

Part 1 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Part 2 – Pre-cast Concrete for Low Cost Housing: State of the Art
Appendices – To view appendices, click on the links below.

Download the report as a two part PDF

pdfpart1 pdfpart2

Appendices

Details Elevations pdfpart2 Calculations

The Report
The Report
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The Report
This project is aimed at surveying the state of the art modern construction methods used in pre-cast concrete systems to suit today’s low cost housing needs worldwide. The following review will provide a basis for design formulation.
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